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Transcript of Meiji Restoration
Japan & The Meiji Restoration
Japan was cut off from the advances of industrialization
and fell behind Europe in science & technology
The Tokugawa family took control of Japan in the 1600s
and banned almost all contact with the outside world.
Similar to China and Russia in terms of isolation from Europe.
China resisted, Russia westernized (Peter & Catherine the Greats)
Sails into Japanese harbor with 4 warships and a letter, 1854
Wanted a promise to trade -
Fired off cannons for a burial (show of strength)
He comes back in one year's time with 7 ships for an answer to the proposal
Treaty of Kanagawa 1855
shogun agreed to open 2 ports to U.S.
Mongols Sack Kiev, Russia
Effects of Kanagawa
Some Japanese feel shogun is weak, they are upset
Some felt they need to modernize in order to match the threat of foreigners
1867, daimyo rebel, overthrow shogun, restore emperor to power in 1868
Modernize & Industrialize!
1868-1912 known as Meiji Restoration - "Meiji" means enlightened rule
Japanese Exports & Imports
Trade increases the most from 1898-1902
Trade increased due to the Meiji Restoration
Emperor and advisors implement reforms that change Japan forever
Why is Japan Different?
Emperor & advisors sent people abroad to learn about western govt, economics, technology, customs
Foreign experts invited to Japan
Built an industrialized economy
Took the best the West had to offer, and borrowed what they wanted
Adopt German Style of Govt
Wanted a strong central govt
Emperor had autocratic power, he could do anything he wanted.
Can quickly transform country as they see fit, because they had total control
Had a two-house legislature, but one house was elected, suffrage limited
Factories, banks, & postal system
Modern army, strong navy, all men had to enter the military
Public education, universities
Women did not gain any personal freedom, however; some rights and privileges were taken away
Industrialization contributed to Japan's strong military -> that contributed to the need to secure resources, and the means with which to do it
Get Taiwan, and trading spheres within China
Now an imperial power, much like its Western counterparts!
1904-1905, fight the Russians over land in Korea
Crush the Russians on land and sea.
Shows Europeans that other races can be equals in warfare.
Leads to yellow peril, the idea that China and Japan would unite to overthrow European interests
Meiji Japan is NKOTB
An island nation with few natural resources
Due to industrialization, they become imperialistic
-> look to nearby Pacific islands for land
Dependent on trade to sell it's manufactures
Compete in the global market place with experienced imperialists
China vs. Japan
Chinese resist reform before being forced to submit
Japan borrowed Western ways and accepts westernization
As a result, China gets whipped, Japan becomes an empire builder!
Does December 7th, 1941 ring a bell?
Both opposed imperialism, but in different ways
1894 - fight China over Korean territory
Japan wins quickly