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Biological Hazards: Food Borne Illnesses

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Hyacynth Shayne Rodeane A.

on 13 January 2015

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Transcript of Biological Hazards: Food Borne Illnesses

A food borne illness is generally classified as a food borne infection, intoxication, or toxin-mediated infection. awareness of how different microbes cause a food borne illness will help in understanding how microbes contaminate food.
TYPES OF MICROORGANISM
1. BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS- found in food production.

2. HARMFUL MICROORGANISMS- spoil food and cause diseases.
MICROBIAL FORMS
BACTERIA- provides the most common threat of food safety. Most bacteria exist in vegetative , however, some are able to produce protective. They even survive without not enough food. Bacteria is a single-celled organism and can cause illness in two ways.
1. SPOILAGE BACTERIA- reduce the quality of food to unacceptable levels.

2. PATHOGENIC BACTERIA- disease causing microorganisms that can make people ill if their toxins are consumed through food.
BACTERIAL GROWTH
1. Binary Fission- bacteria reproduce when bacterial cell divides to form two new cells.

2. Generation Time- cell numbers to double is typically 20 to 30 minutes but can also be as quick as 15 minutes.

Classifications of Food Borne Illnesses
Biological Hazards: Food Borne Illnesses
INFECTION- ingestion of harmful microorganism in food. In some instances, the microorganisms may be carried by the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract by the other parts of the body.
INTOXICATION- ingestion of a harmful toxin produced in food. Arises when a living microorganism that grows in food produces a toxin. The food is then ingested and the toxin itself causes the illness.
TOXIN-MEDICATED INFECTION- ingestion of harmful microorganism in food that produces a toxin in the human body. Takes place when a living microorganism is consumed and the ingested microorganism produces a toxin in the body that leads to illness.
PHASES OF BACTERIAL GROWTH
1. Lag phase- growth is slow at first, while the microorganisms acclimate to the food and nutrients in their new habitat.


2. Log Phase- once the metabolic machinery is running, microbes start multiplying exponentially, doubling in number every few minutes.
3. Stationary phase- as more and more microbes are competing for dwindling food and nutrients, the blooming growth stops and the number of bacteria stabilizes.
4. Death phase- toxic waste products build up, food is depleted and the microorganisms begin to die.
BACTERIAL GROWTH
Food- presence of suitable food supply is the most important condition that affects bacterial growth. Bacteria generally prefer food that are high in protein like meat and dairy products.
Acidity- disease-causing bacteria grow best in acidity levels equivalent to pH 4.6 to 7.5. A pH less than 7.0 indicates that the food is acidic. A pH range greater than 7.0 refers to basic food. Very acidic foods are pH below 4.6. Most bacterial growth is inhibited at an acidic environment or at pH of below 4.6 . The optimum growth pH for yeast is from 4.5 to 6.0 while molds require a pH from 3.5 to 4.0
Time- (rule of thumb) bacteria need about four hours, between 5°C to 60°C. A single bactrerial cell can produce over 1 million cells in just 5 hours under ideal condition.

Temperature- most disease-causing bacteria grow within a temperature range of 5°C to 60°C or Temperature Danger Zone.
Classification of Microorganisms according to Temperature Requirements

1. Psychrophiles- troublesome because they are capable of multiplying at both refrigerated and room temperatures.
2. Mesophiles- between 21°C and 43°C, with the most rapid growth at human body temperature.

3. Thermophiles- grow best at temperatures above 43°C. All thermophilic bacteria are spoilage organisms.
Oxygen-
(aerobic) require a lot of oxygen.
(anaerobic) cannot tolrrate oxygen. Grow well in vacuum packaged foods or canned foods where oxygen is not available.
(microaerophilic) narrow oxygen range, usually three to six percent oxygen levels.
(facultative anarerobes) can grow with or without oxygen.

Moisture- scientist have been determined that bacterial growth is influenced by the amount of available water which is designated with the symbol aw. Disease-causing bacteria can only grow in foods with an aw greater than .85. The top layer of some exposed food can hydrate and make it moist enough for microorganisms to grow. Addition of salt or sugar can also be used to reduse available water.
BACTERIAL, VIRAL, AND PARASITIC
FOODBORNE HAZARDS

Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Bacteria
Spore-Forming Foodborne Bacteria- particularly troublesome in food retail-type environments because they can survive on foods.

1.
Bacillus cereus
Description:
facultative anaerobic. Associated with two very different types of illness
Type of Illness:
bacterial intoxication or toxin-medicated infection.
Symptoms:
vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal cramps
Common Food:
meat, milk, vegetables, fish, starchy foods
Transmission in Food:
improperly stored food

2.
Clostridium perfringens
Description:
anaerobic. Spore-forming bacterium. Causes illness due to toxic-infection where the ingested cells produce a toxin in the human intestinal tract.
Type of Illness:
bacterial toxin-medicated infection
Symptoms:
intense abdominal pains and severe diarrhea
Common Food:
spices. Gravy can create an aerobic environment which allows the microorganism to grow.
Transmission in Food:
improperly cooled and then not reheated properly.

3.
Clostridium botulinum
Description:
anaerobic. Spore-forming bacterium. Destroyed if the food is boiled for about 20 minutes. People do not want to boil food that has already been cooked.
Type of Illness:
bacterial intoxication
Symptoms:
fatigue, headache, dizziness, visual disturbance, inability to swallow, difficulty in speaking, and respiratory paralysis.
Common Food:
pH is greater than 4.6 that are not properly heat processed, packaged anaerobically, and held at above 41°F.

Nonspore forming Foodborne Bacteria- not capable of producing a spore structure; they are always in the vegetative state.

1.
Campylobacter jejuni
Description:
microaerophile infection-causing microorganism is unique compared to most other foodborne pathogens because it can only tolerate 3 to 6% oxygen for growth.
Type of Illness:
bacterial infection
Symptoms:
abdominal pain, and slight to severe watery, bloody diarrhea
Common Food:
raw milk and raw chicken
Transmission in Food: cross-contamination, food contact surface.

2.
Escherichia coli
Description:
facultative anaerobic bacterium that can be found in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.
Type of Illness:
bacterial infection or toxin-mediated infection
Symptoms:
severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, HUS, kidney failure, death. Begins with flu-like symptoms.
Common Food:
raw milk and raw ground beef.
Transmission in Food:
contact with the intestines of animals.

3.
Listeria monocytogenes
Description:
facultative anaerobic bacterium. Can survive under many conditions, even in high-salt food. Causes gastrointestinal symptoms in a healthy adult. Disease complications, such as septicemia, meningitis, and encephalitis can be life threatening for people with weakened immune systems.
Type of Illness:
bacterial infection
Symptoms:
nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, chills, backache. Listeriosis can be life threatening for pregnant women, or the at-risk population.
Common Food:
raw meat, raw poultry, dairy products, raw vegetables, and seafood.
Transmission in Food:
cross-contamination

4.
Salmonella spp.
Description:
facultative anaerobic bacterium. Intestinal tracts of warm-blooded animals
Type of Illness:
bacterial infection
Symptoms:
abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, diarrhea
Common Food:
raw meat, poultry products, dairy products, pork, milk chocolate, cream-filled desserts.
Transmission in Food:
cross-contamination, food contact surfaces, food handlers

5.
Shigella spp.
Description:
facultative anaerobic bacterium Found in the intestines of humans and warm-blooded animals and can cause an infection or toxic-infection.
Type of Illness:
bacterial infection
Symptoms:
bacillary dysentery, diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, fatigue, dehydration
Common Food:
ready-to-eat salads, dairy products, poultry, raw vegetables
Transmission in Food:
fecal material and handled unsanitarily by food workers

6.
Staphylococcus aureus
Description
: facultative anaerobic bacterium. A very heat-stable as it grows on food. Grows well without competition from other microbes. Found in burns, infected cuts and wounds, pimples, and boils. It can survive in high salt and sugar conditions and lower water activity.
Type of Illness:
bacterial intoxication
Symptoms:
severe nausea, acute, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea
Common Food:
cooked ready-to-eat foods, salads, meat, poultry products, custard, high-salt foods.
Transmission in Food:
cross-contamination

7.
Vibrio spp.
Description:
implicated in foodborne infections. Resistant to salt and are common in seafood.
Type of Illness:
bacterial infection
Symptoms:
diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, headache, fever, chills.
Common Food:
raw, underprocessed, improperly handled, contaminated fish and shellfish.
Transmission in Food:
exist in raw seafood, cross-contamination

1. Hepatitis A
Description:
causes the liver disease infectious
Type of Illness:
viral infection
Symptoms:
fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, fatigue, swelling of the liver and possibly jaundice or the yellowing of the skin.
Common Food:
raw or lightly cooked oysters and clams harvested from polluted waters, raw fruits and vegetables, unheated food, ready-to-eat foods
Transmission in Food:
person-to-person contact, cross contamination, fecal contamination

Foodborne Illness Caused by Viruses
2. Norwalk virus group
Description:
associated with many foodborne infections, even some outbreaks involving up to 3000 people
Type of Illness:
viral infection
Symptoms:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, headache, low fever
Common Food:
raw seafood, raw fruits, raw vegetables, unheated foods
Transmission in Food:
person-to-person contact, fecal contamination

3. Rotavirus
Description:
leading causes of severe diarrhea among infants and children
Type of Illness:
viral infection
Symptoms:
vomiting, watery diarrhea, low-grade fever
Common Food:
improper handling, foods with no further cooking
Transmission in Food:
person-to-person contact, fecal contamination

1. Anisakis spp.
Description:
nematodes or roundworms. Foodborne infection from fish. They can be beige, ivory white, gray, brown, or pink. Also known as cod worm and herring worm
Type of Illness
: parasitic infection
Symptoms:
vomiting, abdominal pain, coughing, sharp pain, fever
Common Food:
raw or undercooked seafood
Transmission in Food:
transferred in the water, improper food handling

Foodborne Illness Caused by Parasites

2.
Cryptosporidium parvum
Description:
contaminated with cow feces
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
severe watery diarrhea
Common Food:
raw foods with contact to contaminated water
Transmission in Food:
contaminated water supply, person-to-person contact, fecal contamination

3.
Giardia lamblia
Description:
common causes of non-bacterial diarrhea in the United States
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
diarrhea
Common Food:
raw foods with contact to

contaminated water
Transmission in Food:
primarily transmitted by water supply contaminated with feces, fecal contamination, food-contact surfaces
4.
Trichinella spiralis
Description:
foodborne roundworm. Can be found in an infected fleshy muscle. Eaten by a certain meat-eating animals; these animals then transmit it to a new host
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, swelling of tissues around the eyes, muscle stiffness
Common Food:
pork, bear, boar meat
Transmission in Food:
carried by meat-eating or scavenger animals
5.
Toxoplasma gondii
Description:
parasitic infection. Common to warm-blooded animals
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
swollen lymph glands, fever, headache, muscle aches. Mental retardation, blindness, other serious mental or physical problems
Common Food:
red meat, pork, vension, beef
Transmission in Food:
domestic cat, contact with fecal material, undercooked red meat
6.
Entamoeba histolytica
Description:
predominantly infects humans and other primates
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
amoebic dysentry with fever, chills, and sometimes, liver abscess
Common Food:
raw and mishanded food
Transmission in Food:
sewage contaminated water supply and food, though person-to-person contact, fecal contamination
7.
Ascaris lumbricoides
Description:
ingested infective egg releases a larval worm
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
pneumonitis, bowel obstruction
Common Food:
eggs and other food soiled by feces
Transmission in Food:
person-to-person contact, fecal contamination
8.
Taenia saginata
and
Taenia solium
Description:
helminths or parasitic worms
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
digestive disturbance, cysticercosis of muscles, organ, heart or brain
Common Food:
raw and undercooked beef and pork
Transmission in Food:
ingestion
9.
Diphyllobothrium latum
Description:
consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish
Type of Illness:
parasitic infection
Symptoms:
vitamin B12 deficiency
Common Food:
raw and undercooked fish
Transmission in Food:
ingestion

Types of Fungi Hazardous for Consumption
1. Molds- live in plant or animal matter. Most are filamentous organisms and can reproduce through spores. These spores can be transported by air, water, or insects. Most molds' bodies consist of:
root threads that invade the food it lives on;
a stalk rising above the food; and
spores at the ends of the stalks.
When in the right conditions, molds produce "mycotins", poisonous substances that can make people sick, like vomiting, fever, and headache. Molds cannot be found only on the surface of food. Molds are found in virtually every environment and can ba detected indoors and outdoors. They can also tolerate salt and sugar better than most other food invaders. Some molds are beneficial.
Foodborne Illnesses Caused by Fungi
2. Yeast- they differ from bacteria by their larger cell size and shape, which may be oval, elongated, elliptical, or spherical. Most yeast are not pathogenic. In fact, yeast is used as an ingredient in the bread making and is responsible for alcoholic fermentation needed for alcoholic beverages.
3. Mushrooms- fruits and fungus. They grow in soil, wood, or decaying matter. Produce spores which are the seeds of the fungus. Some mushrooms are gilled fungi, pore fungi, tooth fungi, puffballs, cup fungi, morels, coral fungi.

1.
Puffballs
- round or pear-shaped mushrooms. Always whitish, tan, or gray. May or may not have a stalklike base. Solid white at first, gradually turning yellow, then brown as the mushroom ages.
2.
Shaggy Mane
- long, white cylinder with shaggy, upturned, brownish scales. Gills are whitish. As it matures, the cap and gills gradually dissolve into a black, inky fluid, leaving only the standing stalk.
3.
Coral Fungi
- appear as clumps of branching stems which points upward. More are tan, whitish or yellowish; a few are pinkish or purple.
Edible Mushrooms
4.
Morels
- covered with definite pits and ridges, the bottom edge of the cap is attached directly to the stem. Also known as sponge, pinecone, and honeycomb mushroom
Three common species of morels
Common Morel- (White Morel) white ridges and dark
brown pits
(Yellow Morels) ridges and pits turn
yellowish brown
Black or Smoky Morel- ridges are gray or tan when young, but darken with age until they are nearly black. The pits are brown and elongated.
Half-Free Morel- bottom of the cap is attached directly to the stem
5.
Bearded Tooth
- clumps of hanging white fur. It is pure white when fresh and young, but yellows with age.
6.
Oyster Mushroom
- large white, tan or ivory-colored. It has white gills. Spores are white lilac, and the flesh is very soft.

7.
Chanterelles
- funnel or trumpet-shaped and have wavy cap edges. Most are bright orange and yellow. Fresh chanterelles have a pleasant, fruity fragrance.
8.
Boletes
- hamburger bun on a thick stalk. Cap is turned over, a spongy layer if pores instead of bladelike gills. Boletes caps are usually brownish or reddish-brown, while the pores may be whitish, yellow, orange, red, olive, or brown.
9.
Sulfur Shelf
- orange-red caps and pale sulfur-yellow pore surfaces. Some specimens fade to a peach or salmon color.
10.
Hen-of-the-Woods
- looks something like a large, ruffled chicken. It grows as a bouquet of grayish-brown, fan-shaped, overlapping caps, with off-center white stalks branching from a single, thick base.

Edible Mushrooms- used extensively in cooking in many cuisines. Have little nutritional value.

Poisonous Mushrooms- there are amanitas, the false morels and a catch-all category known as little brown mushrooms (LBMs). Mushrooms in these groups are responsible for virtually all the fatal mushroom pousonings. Mushroom poisoning, also known as mycetism, refers to the deleterious effects caused by the ingestion of toxic substances present in a mushroom. These symptoms can vary from slight gastrointestinal discomfort to death. There are three categories of mushroom poisoning:
1. Protoplasmic- results in the generalized destruction of cells followed by organ failure.
2. Neurologic- causes hallucinations, depression, coma, and convulsion.
3. Gastrointestenal- includes spastic colon, rapid nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea.

1.
Amanitas
- starts as an egg-shaped button which can be resemble a small puffball. Fully developed amanitas are gilled mushrooms with parasol-shaped caps that may be white, yellow, red, or brown.
2.
False Morels
- edible and poisonous mushrooms. The problem seems to involve the amount of a toxic chemical called monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) present in these mushrooms. MMH causes diarrhea, vomiting, and severe headaches, and occasionally, it can be fatal. False morels have wrinkled, irregular caps that are brainlike or saddle-shaped. Also known as elephant ears, arkansas morels, and brain mushrooms.

Common Poisonous Mushrooms
3.
Little Brown Mushrooms (LBMs)
- it includes all small to medium-sized, hard-to-identify brownish mushroom with spores of all colors.
4.
Jack O' Lantern
- bright-orange mushrooms. Glows in the dark. These common mushrooms have caused many poisonings because they look, smell, and even taste good. They have a pleasant, fruity fragrance.
5.
Green-Spored Lepiota
- these large, common mushrooms often appear in fairy rings on suburban lawns, and are frequently eaten by lawn's owner.

Prions- refer to proteinaceous infectious particles (PrP). Prions disease, also called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), create spongiform pathological changes in the brain, resulting in encephalopathy or brain brain damage. These diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders in human and other animals.

Foodborne Illness Caused by Prions
1. Mad Cow Disease- an infected cow is observed to be disoriented, irritable, and unable to stand or walk properly. Also known as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE).
2. Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD)- a rare and fatal neurodegenerative disease in human.

1. Application of Heat
2. Application of Low Temperature
3. Controlling of pH Conditions
4. Reduction of Free Oxygen
5. Reduction of Available Water
6. Role of Other Chemicals
7. Safe and Sanitary Food Handling

HOW TO CONTROL
MICROBIAL GROWTH
1. Food Preparation Stage
2. Food Processing Stage (Cooking)
3. Food Storage Stage

PREVENTION OF FOODBORNE ILLNESSES
Prepared by: Silos, Hyacynth Shayne Rodeane A.
Soliman, Claudine M.
BS HRM-2-C

Bearded Tooth
Bolete
Coral Fungi
Hen-of-the-Woods
Oyster
Puffball
Shaggy Mane
Sulfur Shelf
Chanterelle
Amanitas
False Morel
Green-Spored Lepiota
Jack O' Lantern
Light Brown Mushrooms (LBMs)
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