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Developmental Psychology

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Nathan Dang

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Transcript of Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology
Year 10 Psychology

Nathan Dang
10D
Mrs Rossiter

What is Developmental Psychology?
Developmental Psychology is the scientific study of how our behaviour and psychological processes changes as be progress through different life stages. This subject in psychology were explored and founded by many people such as Freud, Bandura and Piaget.
Key Studies and Psychologists
This Developmental Psychology presentation will take an in-depth look at three psychologist that revolutionized the field of psychology with their theories and key studies.
Albert Bandura- The Social Learning Theory
The base premise for this theory was that we learn through interactions and imitate them with respect
to vicarious reinforcement-learning through the actions and consequences of others. Imitation involves the participant paying attention, retaining what they have seen (retention), being capable of repeating the action (motor reproduction) and the intent to do it all (motivation). It is believed that children imitate as a 'shortcut to learning'.

To test his theory, Bandura set up a test now know as the Bobo Doll Experiment, that provide startling results.
The human mind is much like this iceberg. Like an iceberg, only half of what we show is seen-this is the conscious. The rest of our psyche is hidden under layers of mystery-this is known as-The Unconscious
Sigmund Freud-The Psychoanalytical Theory
According to Freud, children go through five stages of development in which the id seeks pleasure and focuses on a distinct erogenous zone. These five stages are:

The Oral Stage, the Anal Stage, the Phallic Stage, the Latency Stage and the Genital Stage.
All of Freud's findings on the stages of development were focused and developed from one little boy: Herbert Graf (Known as-Little Hans).
Research on the boy was performed by his father and key notes were sent to Freud for analysis.
-When Hans was 3, his father reported that he developed an active obsession with his 'widdler' (penis)-in one instant, he even asked his mother if she had one. Because of his obsession with his 'widdler', his mother told him if he continued playing with it, she would asked the doctor to cut it off.
-At around the age of 5, he developed a phobia of horses saying that he was afraid of horse biting him on the streets. This statement formed Freud's base premise that Han's dad was the horse and the biting was representative of casturation leading him to believe that all boys experience this conflict during the Oedipus Conflict. Freud believed that Hans was experiencing anxiety becuase he thought that his father would casturate him due to his desire for his mother.
In the 20th century, Austrian psychologist, Sigmund Freud proposed new theories that would greatly enhance the field of psychology to this day. One of his theories was that there were three partitions in the brain that control the way we think and behave in normal day life; the id, the superego, and the ego.
The Psychoanalytic Approach
The Unconscious Mind-The Id


The Id is know as the “devil on your shoulder”, it is
a reservoir that strives to satisfy the basic sexual
and aggressive desires. The id operates on a pleasure
principal that operate to seek immediate gratification.
The Psychoanalytic Approach
The Unconscious Mind-The Superego
The superego is also known as the “angel on your shoulder”.
This part of you unconscious can make you feel either very
guilty or very proud of yourself through hypothetical scenarios.
The superego and ego are always locked in a continuous
fight for supremacy in the brain.

The Psychoanalytic Approach
The Unconscious Mind-The Ego
The ego acts as a moderator between the id and the superego.
It is known as an “executive” part of the human personality and
meditates between the id and superego to reach an ultimatum,
where both of unconscious are happy with the outcome

The question proposed in this experiment was: Can aggressive behaviour be learned by observation?

To perform this experiment, Bandura requested the aid of Stanford University's Nursery School, and asked for 72 children-36 boys and 36 girls-around the age of 37-70 months old. Of the 72 children, Bandura divided them into 3 even groups: the control (no video), non-aggressive (friendly videos), and the aggressive group (violent videos). In the aggressive group, children watch both a male and female role model abuse a bobo doll by hitting, punching and throwing it; the non-aggressive group saw the same adult role models kindly interacting with the doll; and the control group were just allowed into the room. In the test, the children were given 20 minutes to play with all the toys in the room; the controlled group played will other objects in the room and sometimes even ignored the doll; the friendly group interacted with the doll in a kind and friendly manner; but the aggressive group imitated the adult actions and even though of other ways to harm the doll.
Sigmund Freud
Freud's Five Psychosexual Stages of Development
The Oral Stage
Ages: 0-1
Erogenous Zone: The Mouth
Crisis: Feeding/Mouth Problems
Gratifying Actions:
-Oral Optimism: Sucking/Swallowing
-Oral Sadistic: Biting and chewing
Conflict: Where the mother overfeeds or underfeeds the baby.
Fixations in adulthood: Smoking, constant chewing (pens, nail bitting), eating disorders and narcissism. If the child was an oral optimist, then they would be independent, passive but gullible, where as if the child was oral sadistic, then they would be aggressive and abusive.

The Anal Stage
Ages: 1-3
Erogenous Zone: The anus
Crisis: Toilet training
Gratifying Action: Defication
Conflict/Fixation:
Anal Expulsive: Where the parents were too lenient in toilet training.
The adult usually turn out to be disorganised and have reckless behaviour.
Anal Retentive: Where the parents were too strict in toilet training. Adults turn out to have strict and stingy traits

The Phallic Stage
Ages: 3-6
Erogenous Zone: Genitals
Conflict: The conflict depends on the gender of the child.
If the child is a male, he will experience the ‘Oedipus Conflict’,
if the child is female, she will experience the ‘Electra Conflict”.
Both of these conflicts are resolved when the child has identified with the same
sex parent
The Phallic Stage-Oedipus Complex
Conflict: The boy is sexually attracted to the mother but is scared to act on his id. He is jealous of the father but fears that the father will castrate him as the boy believes that the father also castrated the mother. According to Freud, this triggers a defence mechanism that helps the child act like his father, making him identify easily with the father.



Fixation as an adult:

Anxiety/Guilty feelings of sex, fear of castration, narcissistic, homosexuality, curiosity


The Oral Stage
The Anal Stage
The Phallic Stage
The Latency Stage
The Genital Stage
The Latency Stage
Age: 6-Puberty

Crisis: None

Conflict: None

At this stage, all the child’s sexual desires will be repressed and they will start to develop same-sex friends.
They start to adjust to their environment and engage in cultural, musical and physical activities.


The Genital Stage
Age: Puberty onwards
Erogenous Zone: Genitals
Gratification: Masturbation
Crisis: Retrosexual Relations-The Pursuit of Relationships
Conflict:
If the person was not able to resolve any problems from the previous stages, it is now too late to be resolved-It is now stuck with the adult as a fixation until death.

The Phallic Stage-Electra Complex
Conflict: The girl is sexually attracted to the father and has an extremely jealous of the mother and wants her out of the picture. However, she does not act upon her id as she fears her mother will not love her anymore. Freud also proposed that all girls have a desire to have a penis (known as penis envy) but replace the desire with dolls of babies.

Fixation as an adult:
According to Freud, a girl will always have a penis envy

Sigmund Freud
The Psychoanalytic Approach
Key Study:
Little Hans
Albert Bandura
The Social Learning Theory
Key Study:
The Bobo Doll Study
Jean Piaget
The Cognitive Development Theory
Key Study:
Lisa and Lynne
Jean Piaget-The Cognitive Developmental Theory
Jean Piaget-The Stages of Cognitive Development
The Cognitive Developmental Theory-Definitions
Schemata:
A mental blueprint of all the ideas, memories, skills and associates that have to do with a particular set of operations that guide and regulate behaviour. (eg: The concept of a test: silence, test of knowledge, etc)

Assimilation:
The process of extedning the range of an already existing schema. This is where new information can be learned without having to change the concept of the already existing schema. (eg: Fishes-goldfishes-clownfishes)

Accommodation:
The process of creating a new schema as the new activity does not fit any other known schema.
(eg: From catching a bus to taking a plane trip)

Body Schema:
The first schema that a child will ever develop in their life. The base idea of this schema is that the child has grasped the idea that some items were 'me' and always present, while other things 'not me" were only sometimes present.
(eg: the knowledge that objects are ether here or not here)

Stage
Name of Stage
Description
1
Sensorimotor
The child has no awareness of objects or people
not immediately in front of them. The child has not
begun to understand 'object permanence' and is
still susceptible to games such as 'peek-a-boo'.
Age
0-2
years
2
Pre-Operational
2-7
years
This is the stage where the child must learn the
most in order to succeed in life. The child must
learn to understand the world from other people's
point of view rather than being egocentric (eg: I
can't see you, you can't see me). The child must
also learn the concept of conservation.
The Sensorimotor Stage
Relating Video Clips
Errors in this Stage
The A not B error: where the child
is shown that an object is hidden
under 'A', then show that the object
is moved to 'B'' but when as where
the object is, they responds 'A'
Errors in Stage Video Clip
The Type 'A' not 'B' Error
The Three Mountains Task:
The child is show two views of a
mountain and then asked what the
experimenter sees; instead, the
child describes what they see.

Conservation Test: The child must
identify that the amount of liquid
in both glasses are the same
The Pre-Operations Stage
The Three Mountains Error
3
Concrete Operations
7-12
years
This is the stage where the child develops logical
though and has mastered conservation and
reversibility. The child can now also visualize
scenarios and explain why events occur.
The child cannot think hypothetically
Concrete Operations/Errors
refer to previous video
4
Formal Operations
12-
years
The child can not thick abstractly and is stuck
with the logic in the concrete operations.

-Thinking is no longer tied to events that can
be observed but can be hypothesized
The child is still thinking like a
child in concrete operations
Formal Operations
Concrete Operations/Errors
Conclusion
Bibliography 1:
Bibliography 2:
Jean Piaget's Contribution to the Developmental Psychology
Key Study: Little Hans
Experimenter: Sigmund Freud
Key Study: The Bobo Doll Experiment
Experimenter: Albert Bandura
The findings of Bandura's study were shocking to the general public and decisive action took place in light of the experiment. Thanks to Bandura and his experiment, today, all movies, cartoons, media and games must be rated to ensure that children do not see violence and repeated.

Australia's Classification Ratings:
'G'-General Audiences (All Ages)
'PG'-Parental Guidance Required (Ages 13-15)
'M'-Mature Audiences (Ages 14+)_
'MA 15+'-Mature Audiences Ages 15 upwards (15+)
'R'-Restricted to audiences 18 and upwards (18+)
Impact of the Social Learning Theory
The Bobo Doll Experiment
Freudian Defence Mechanisms
This is the ego's way of protecting the mind by reducing anxiety and unconscionably distort the perception reality.

Repression: The subconcious act that banishes memories that cause high anxiety (A repressed memory)

Regression: When a person is faced with anxiety, they make revert back to an infantile stage (eg: thumb sucking)

Reaction Formation: When the ego unconsciously switches the truth (unacceptable impulses) to those of the opposite
(eg: Stockholm Syndrome)

Rationalisation: The ego tries to lighten the blow of a event: It offers a self-justifying explaination in place of the real emotion
(eg: Bad result in a test)
Piaget's main belief was that children "organise" what they think and how they learn.
One day, Piaget was observing a standardised intelligence tests when he saw that children of a similar age made the same mistakes as one another and saw that there were stages to a child's learning.
Through the method of clinical review (a test that asked children sets of questions), Piaget recorded all the unusual answers to see how understanding the world could lead to errors.

Egocentricity:
For the moment a child is born, they are egocentric, which means that they are unable to comprehend the world from a point of view other than theirs. This egocentricity is lost when the child begins to develop past the pre-operational stage. (eg: The child describes only what they can see and cannot explain what others see.)

Object Consistency (or Object Permanence):
The realisation that an object, whether seen or unseen exists. (eg: When a child plays 'Peek a Boo', they think that the parent has actually disappeared)

Decentreing:
The child is able to see an object but from the point of view of another person (eg: Three Mountains Task). To be able to decentre an object, the child must overcome egocentricity.

Egocentricity:

Object Consistency:

Decentreing:
The Cognitive Developmental Theory-Definitions (Cont.)
Through Piaget, the world was able to learn that children cognitively develop through for stages of childhood, but according to him, children develop through nature and nature alone.

Piaget's work helped define how children should be taught and who should teach them. It was also learned that children should not be treated like adults, as studies have shown that the way adults and children think are qualitatively different.

However, Piaget's work has come under fire as a Russian psychologist, Vygotsky, proved that children do learn a lot by themselves (nature), but learn a substantial amount more if they are with an educator (nurture).
Microsoft ClipArt
Microsoft ClipArt
AS Psychology, (n.d.) 'Analysis of a Phobia of a five year old' ', Holah.co.uk Psychology, (n.p.) (Last Viewed 3 September 2013)
http://www.holah.karoo.net/freudstudy.htm

Hannibal. J, (2012), 'Psychology for the International Baccalaureate Diploma', Oxford University, London, Oxford

McLeod, (2008), 'THe Id, the ego and the superego', SimplyPsychology, (n.p), (Last Viewed 2 September 2013)
http://www.simplypsychology.org/psyche.html

St Peters Lutheran College Psychology Department, (2013), 'Developmental Psychology', St Peters Lutheran College, Brisbane,

St Peters Lutheran College Psychology Department, (2013), 'Developmental Psychology Booklet', St Peters Lutheran College, Brisbane,

Rossiter. M, (2013), 'Teachers Notes: Developmental Psychology', St Peters Lutheran College, Brisbane

Law.A, (et al), (2010), 'International Baccalaureate Psychology', Pearson Educational, London, Essex

Wikipedia, (2013), 'Australian Classification Board', Wikipedia, California, (Last Viewed 3 September 2013)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australian_Classification_Board

Wikipedia, (2013), 'Sigmund Freud', Wikipedia, California, (Last Viewed 3 September 2013)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigmund_Freud

Wikipedia, (2013), 'Albert Bandura', Wikipedia, California, (Last Viewed 3 September 2013)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albert_Bandura

Wikipedia, (2013), 'Herbert Graf', Wikipedia, California, (Last Viewed 3 September 2013)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Graf

Wikipedia, (2013), 'Jean Piaget', Wikipedia, California, (Last Viewed 3 September 2013)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jean_Piaget
Through psychologist like Freud, Bandura and Piaget, the world has learned how a child behaves and learns through childhood and how they should act. None of the conclusions, with the exception of Bandura, is concrete, but the scientists have formed a evidence to support their theories, and helped the field of psychology expand and grow.
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