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Period 6 Review WHAP
Transcript of Period 6 Review WHAP
World Conflicts and Their Effects
- Ind. Rev led to an arms race- unofficial competition to see who could produce best weapons.
- Triple Entente (FR, BR, RU) Triple Alliance (GY, IT, AUSHG).
- Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottomans, and Russia all had ethnic groups within that wanted to break away and form their own countries. Also, GY and IT had inflated nationalism b/c newly formed.
- competing over smaller pieces of land (most already claimed) --> increased competition and suspicions.
- serbian nationalist killed future emperor of AUSHG (Frank Ferdinand) = spark of war b/c pulled in alliances.
: unresolved issues from WWI (Treaty of Ver's war guilt clause for GY led to aggression --> Hitler gaining power), Great Depression (led to Fascism in GY/IT, and New Deal in US), Japan's aggression in KOR/CH, and finally weak LON which couldn't control global aggression/appeasement policy.
- Axis (GY/IT) and Allied (BR, FR, RU, US 1939), Blitzkrieg (lightening war, GY), Pearl Harbor --> US enter --> Normandy DDay & Island Hopping in Pacific --> Hiroshima/Nagaski bombings --> Allied wins.
- Stronger United Nations (US member and military), use of atomic power controversy, Holocaust discovered (12 mill- 1/2 Jews, 1/2 "others").
Biggest consequence? COLD WAR.
- electric power everything in homes and businesses- stoves, lights, refrigerators, radios. Changed sleep patterns, marker of development.
- Telephones invented in 1876, but not to majority of population until the 1920s. Huge improvement in the 80s w/ cell phones.
- Radios big in 20s, after WWII tv became more popular by population and gov't.
s- 80s have intro of PCs, internet originally for scientists, but now connects the globe.
- cars changed life, led to growth of suburbs, created new multinational car companies, also increased pollution.
- WWI and on used in war. Air travel became big after WWII, airplanes demoted trains for travel.
- US on moon in '69, US and RU now space partners, and we get GPS as a bonus b/c of satellites.
- polio vaccine, antibiotics, surgical procedures, cancer treatments. Smallpox and whooping cough virtually eliminated in industrialized nations.
Developments in energy
- Fossil fuels- coal, diesel and gasolene (petroleum products) still in use. Though have solar and wind power, fossil fuels still cheapest and most used. Nuclear energy- intense in Cold War. 1986 Chernobyl plant exploded. 2011 tsunami destroyed JP nuclear plant. Led to anti-nuclear movements in Germany.
Increased use of resources
led to deforestation, desertification, and increased water (South Africa).
Also led to increased greenhouse gases and pollution.
Period 6 Review
Contemporary Era c.1900 to now
Harty, AP World History
Environment is more than plants and trees- it's human interaction with the environment. Ex: more people make more depands for food crops and more housing for shelter.
Global pop increase
- b/c better medicine, food, and healthier habits, people living longer than ever before --> population boom (highest #s in India and CH).
Concern --> birth controls.
Also have rise of Alzheimer's.
- powerful fertilizers w/ disease resistant crops= famine-free world.
But more food= more people.
India joined early in 60s- hybrid rice, corn and wheat crops.
Now have environmental concerns.
War, Disease, and Famine
- WWI=machine guns, WWII = massive bombing campaigns against large cities (Battle of Britain, Nagasaki/Hiroshima).
- first global disease was flu/influenza of 1918 (thanks WWI) killed 20 mill. HIV/AIDS second major pandemic w/ 25 mill, and is the leading cause of death in Africa.
- Modern war disrupts food supply = famine. 1930s, Stalin made artificial famine against communities that went against his rulre. Natural disasters also cause famine.
India first and largest- Gandhi led nonviolent movement, supported by INC and Muslim League (Jinnah). 1947 independent, but also partitioned into Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India.
Indochina- FR colony rebelled for independence, was split into Laos, Cambodia, and North/South Vietnam.
N. Africa gained independence before sub-Saharan AFR, rebellion of Algeria against FR --> independence in '62.
Ghana (BR Gold Coast) first sub-Saharan nation to gain independence w/ Kwame Nkrumah. Led to Pan-Africanism and the African Union.
Mexican Revolution against Neocolonialism and Econ Imp. Wanted land reform via Socialism. Led to muralist art movement.
Many moved to former mother country/metropole. Many from India moved to BR.
India, Singapore, and Indonesia had economic success and political stability.
South Africa went through apartheid --> Nelson Mandela led anti movement --> first African president.
Rise and Decline of Authoritarian Govs
: Bolshevik's w/ Lenin rise to overthrow Provisional gov't in 1917 --> USSR --> Stalin --> 5 Year Plans (diSASTer) --> gulags --> Cold War power --> Khrushchev's anti Stalin views --> strained USSR --> Gorbachev --> glasnost & perestroika --> fall of USSR --> Russia.
: Qing overthrown 1911 --> Republic w/ Sun Yat-sen --> instability w/ Chiang Kai-Shek --> JP invasion in '37 --> civil war b/t Nationalists and Communists --> pause during WWII --> Mao won in 1949 --> Nationalists to Taiwan --> Great Leap Forward and Cultural Rev--> Deng Xiaoping's economic reforms (more capitalism).
- over land reform, took a while and after WWII it faded.
- western-backed shah in power --> radical anti-West Muslim leader, Ayatollah Khomeini --> strict shariah law and Muslim unity.
Changes in Global Economies and Societies
: LON and UN to promote international cooperation. Olympic Committee formed to promote international understanding through sports. Economic orgs like World Bank and IMF promote sound banking principles and loan money to developing economies. WTO promoted global free trade. G20 is an organization of world's largest economies.
Regional Trade Agreements
: European Union w/ common money, --> NAFTA w/ US, CA, and MX. 1960s rich ME oil nations formed OPEC to set oil prices/exports.
: Exxon, McDonald's, Coca Cola in US, Shell Oil in Europe, Toyota and Sony in East Asia.
Global humanitarian groups
: Red Cross, Amnesty International, World Health Organization, UNICEF.
: post WWII held for Nazi war criminals for crimes against humanity.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
: 1948 rights to freedom of speech and religion, right to life, liberty, and personal security, or movement, fair trial, work, and education.
Civil rights movements
: 50s and 60s African Americans pushed US gov't to give equal rights, led by Martin Luther King, Jr. followed nonviolent (Gandhi).
most western nations gave women right to vote early 1900s (US in 1918), during Civil Rights Movement women also sought equal employment and social equality.
: TOTAL WAR, trench warfare, machine guns, poison gas, tanks, submarines.
Colonial soldiers: ANZAC and Gurkha.
US entered (Zimm Letter, Lusitania) --> armistice --> Wilson's 14 Points --> LON w/o US.
Changes in religions
: eastern religions like Buddhism gained popularity in the West, Islam went through a conservative revival as a response against growing western influence. Islamic fundamentalism helped to spur the Iranian Revolution and terrorist groups like Al-Qaeda.
: West center of economy and thus culture. US also gained new pop culture like Bollywood.
World Cup soccer, and global basketball and baseball teams.
20 mill dead --> favoring appeasement instead of war.
Treaty of Versailles (blame GY --> pay $$ --> hyperinflation and Weimar Republic.
Mandate system in ME to BR and FR under LON. :(
Fall of RU, AUSHG, and Ottoman empires. (Bye land-based empires)
US and JP= world powers
: Yalta Conference redrew map of world for after the war, USSR took most of E. Euro w/o self-determination --> lost trust.
Berlin Airlift (US/BR dropped supplies to blockaded E. Berlin),
Marshall Plan (US economic aid/recovery in Euro), NATO vs. Warsaw Pact,
Mao Zedong took control of CH in 1949- Communist CH
Korean War (1950-1953 stalemate --> 38th parallel= demilitarized zone)
Vietnam War (example of Containment policy, US withdrew, Communist N. united Vietnam, many south Vietnamese migrated to FR, AUS, and US) Ho Chi Minh led the Nationalist North. Unified Vietnam under communism.
Angolan Civil War (US and USSR sided with opposing sides during this war for independence from Portugal)
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962 peak of Cold War, led to direct line of communication b/t US and USSR.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, Perestroika and Glasnost, fall of Berlin Wall, fall of USSR.
: Cost a lot for military development (but less than if all out war b/t US and USSR), destructive nature of nuclear bombs spreading to other nations, and decline of communism.
Difference b/t Leninist and Maoist Communism?
Mao's is more agrarian in nature/more on peasant farmers. Lenin is based more on industrial workers.
Rise and fall of Civil Rights
- anti-apartheid movement in South Africa. Was imprisoned, but released to become first black president of South Africa. Promoted racial reconciliation.
Martin Luther King JR
- civil rights leader in the US. Promoted equal rights (including voting) for African Americans. Helped lead to the Civil Rights Act and Voting Rights Act.
UN Declaration of Universal Human Rights
- United Nations document condemning genocide and protect rights of refugees.
Global Uprisings of 1968
- Student protests often for democratic reforms, civil rights, women's rights, etc. Helped started by Che Guevera's death (Marxist leader of Cuban Rev)
- 1989 protest for democratic rights. Deng Xiaoping (capitalist reforms) shut down the protest.
- rise of authoritarian govs in Chile, Spain, and Uganda.
IRA and Al-Qaeda
- used violence to get their goals. Didn't work. IRA for ind. of N. Ireland, Al-Qaeda for anti-west/US in ME.
Both USSR and China implemented 5 Year Plans for their economies.
First plans led to famine in USSR and CH. MILLIONS of deaths.
US responded by expanding capitalist free-market reforms.
Deng Xiaoping in CH brought capitalist reforms.
Rise of capitalism in Japan and Asian Tigers led to IMMENSE economic growth.
Also had government sponsored economic growth in Egypt (Nasser and Suez Canal).