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Industrial Revolution: The Paper Machine
Transcript of Industrial Revolution: The Paper Machine
Modern paper machines have four distinct operational sections:
The forming section, commonly called the wet end, is where the slurry of fibers is filtered out on a continuous fabric loop to form a wet web of fiber.
The press section where the wet fiber web passes between large rolls loaded under high pressure to squeeze out as much water as possible.
The drying section, where the pressed sheet passes partly around, in a serpentine manner, a series of steam heated drying cylinders. Drying removes the water content down to a level of about 6%, where it will remain at typical indoor atmospheric conditions.
The calender section where heavy steel rolls smooth the dried paper. Only one nip is necessary in order to hold the sheet, which shrinks through the drying section and is held in tension between the press section (or breaker stack if used) and the calender. Extra nips give more smoothing but at some expense to paper strength.
Here is a short video by How Its Made for a visual aid of the creation of paper. The Paper Machine Before the invention of continuous paper making, paper was made in individual sheets by stirring a container of pulp slurry and either pouring it into a fabric sieve called a sheet mold or dipping and lifting the sheet mold from the vat. While still on the fabric in the sheet mold the wet paper is pressed to remove excess water and then the sheet was lifted off to be hung over a rope or wooden rod to air dry. In 1799, Louis-Nicolas Robert of Essonnes, France, was granted a patent for a continuous paper making machine. At the time Robert was working for Saint-Léger Didot, with whom he quarrelled over the ownership of the invention. Didot thought that England was a better place to develop the machine. But during the troubled times of the French Revolution, he could not go there himself, so he sent his brother in law, John Gamble, an Englishman living in Paris. Through a chain of acquaintances, Gamble was introduced to the brothers Sealy and Henry Fourdrinier, stationers of London, who agreed to finance the project. Gamble was granted British patent 2487 on 20 October 1801. The Prototype The early paper (Fourdrinier) machines were simply made, and didn't consist of very many steps. The paper was roughly made and came out in very low quality compared to what it is today.
Step 1: The endlessly moving belt made of either wire or plastic received the mixture of water and pulp. The belt then allowed the excess water to run off.
Step 2: The long sheet of paper formed on the assembly belt was then dried by using suction, pressure, and heating.
Step 3: Calendars (heavy steel rollers) rolled over the paper to make it thin and to remove some excess moisture that could possibly still be inside of the paper.
Step 4: Gloss or other desired finishs were then added to the paper to form the final outcome of the process. Louis-Nicolas Roberts Fourdrinier People today use paper almost everywhere and for almost everything. We use paper for our homework, for taking notes in class, and for just writing things down in general. Paper was/is also very important in providing a means to record history and different kinds of information. Without the availability of paper made by the paper machines we would not be able to record and learn as much about the world that we learn in schools and in books today. How Its Made The Work force The paper machines surprisingly did not need many people to keep them running compared to the huge, less "High tech" factory buildings filled with dozens of workers, however men and women were still hired to keep track of different sections of the machinery and to make sure everything was in order and working fine. The workers at these big paper companies received very little pay and lived in very poor living conditions. These companies never provided their workers with support if they were injured, pregnant or sick. Workers at these factories were also forced to work long hours every day (10-16 hours a day). We think it might be boring to be in school for 7 hours during weekdays but imagine working 10-16 hours a day with no days off.