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Lecture 1, Part 2 of 2 - Biological Bases of Behaviour
Transcript of Lecture 1, Part 2 of 2 - Biological Bases of Behaviour
In this way, the drugs can produce changes in behaviour
Prozac (enhance serotonin)
Treatments for schizophrenics decrease levels of dopamine
Treatments for Parkinson’s disease increase levels of dopamine
LSD (blocks serotonin)
All neurons that produce serotonin found in the brain stem
Implicated in mood & arousal
Hallucinogenic drug LSD acts by suppressing the effects of serotonin neurons
Overview of an action potential
Cells in the nervous systems that process, receive and/or transmit information to other cells in the body
Vary in shape, size, chemical composition & function
10 to 100 billion neurons in the brain
That’s a lot of information!
Transmission of information in the brain
Neurotransmitters & their role in behaviour
Drugs can modulate activity of neurotransmitters at the synaptic junction
Endorphins is short for endogenous morphines
Known as neuromodulators
Modulate postsynaptic activity of the neuron
Implicated in control of emotional responses & pain
Arousal, experience of pleasure, and learning
Implicated in mood disturbances & schizophrenia
Schizophrenics have increased levels of dopamine in certain brain regions
Lack of dopamine in the substantia niagra causes Parkinson’s disease
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
Most common inhibitory neurotransmitter
Very common - found in as many as a 1/3 of synapses
Particularly concentrated in the thalamus, hypothalamus and occipital lobes
Low levels of GABA associated with increased anxiety
Found in central and peripheral nervous system
Acetylcholine is excitatory at junctions - leading to muscle contraction
Involved in learning and memory
Implicated in Alzheimer’s disease (decreased levels of acetylcholine observed in Alzheimer’s patients)
Neurons never touch - the gap between them is called a synapse
Action potential travels along, pushing synaptic vesicles towards terminal buttons
Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters
Changes in the terminal button leads to the release of neurotransmitters
The Action Potential ‘Travels’ Along the Axon
Overview of an action potential
What is an action potential?
Depends on information arriving at the dendrites
Balance between excitatory and inhibitory signals
With the right excitatory input, an
is produced and the neuron
When do neurons transmit and receive information?
neurons carry information toward the central nervous system
carry information away from the central nervous system
relay sensory information to other interneurons or motor neurons
Classes of Neurons
Information is transmitted along the length of the axon, which end in terminal buttons
Terminal buttons stimulate glands, muscles, or other neurons
Information is transmitted in one direction: from the dendrites through the axon.
Some neurons have a different structure though
A model neuron
Neural activity is the
bases of behaviour
Basic components of neural activity:
Neurotransmitters play a key role in synaptic transmission
The action potential ‘travels’ along the axon, but stops at the terminal buttons.
Neurons never touch.
Involves positively charged ions crossing the membrane of a neuron.
Dendrites receive incoming signals
Soma (the cell body) contains the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell
Information travels from the dendrites to the soma, which then passes (some) information through the axon
Parts of a neuron
At rest, the inside of a neuron is negatively charged.
During an action potential positive ions cross the membrane and cause the inside of the neuron to become positively charged for a brief moment.
see what parts you can remember and which ones you need to learn
Draw a Neuron!!
Dopamine is implicated in
a) emotional responses and pain
b) mood and arousal
c) mood disturbances & schizophrenia
d) Alzheimer's disease
Which of the following is NOT true when talking about an action potential
a) your cells resting state is negative
b) the maximum intensity threshold for an action potential occurs at +40 mV
c) cells can be continuously excited
d) when stimulated ions flow into and out of the cell reversing the electrical charge
Biological BasEs of Behaviour
Lecture 1 (two Parts)
on Neural Activity
And... can you answer a couple 'Dad Jokes' to help your memorisation? (Do not spend long on these!)
An action potential takes the train to uni. What is the name of the train station where it gets off off?
Why should you keep matches away from a neuron?