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AP Bio Tree of Life Project

Tree of Life: Taxas
by

Austin Kopack

on 27 April 2011

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Transcript of AP Bio Tree of Life Project

Charophytes Chara
Zygotes retained in oogonium
Do not undergo alternation of generations
Found in freshwater Bryophytes Marchantia (liverworts)
Non-vascular tissue
Reproduce via spores
(no seeds or fruit) Lycophytes
Selaginella kraussiana
1st vascular plant (410 mil ago)
Spore reproduction
Macroscopic alternation of generations
Only vascular plants with miciphylls Sphenophytes Horsetails
Late Devonian
Division of ferns
Found in wet areas Pterophytes Fern
350 mil ago
Radial symmetry
Spore reproduction
Vascular

Gymnosperms Conifer
Seed bearing (cones)
"Naked seeds" Cycads Cycad
280 mya
Seed plant
Compound leaves & stout trunk
Evergreen, tropical and semitropics Ginko Ginko Biloba
270 mya
Stream side environments
Large seeds
"bolting" -height over ferns
Gnetophytes Ephedra
"woody"
vessels like angiosperms
bracts around ovules
vine-like projections
Conifers Douglas fir
"woody"
Mostly trees
Seeds in strobilus
wax leaves Angiosperms Magnolia
Flowering plants
Fruit
Endosperm in seed
Stamen & Carpel
225 mya Monocots Hemerocalis
Single seed-leaf
Grasses
Three leaves
Parallel veins
Scattered vascular bundles Dicots Magnolia Flower
Concentric vascular bundles
Two embryonic leaves
Reticulate veins Chytridiomycetes Chytridiomycete (on root)
Found in soil, fresh water, saline estuaries
Self propelling flagellated spores
responsible for parasitic infections Zygocytes Asomycetes Sac Fungi
Nonmotile spores
Symbiotic lichen
Detrivore
Antibiotics, yeast, cheese, etc Basidiomycetes
Higher Fungi
Reproduce via formation of end cells
Composed of hyphae
Clamp connection creates genetic variation Deuteromycetes Imperfect Fungi
Produces spores asexually
Penicillin, athlete's foot, yeast infection

Lichens Lichens
Symbiosis of fungus and photosynthetic partner (green algea)
Can live in extreme environments
Resemble plants
Affect Carbon Dioxide level and nitrogen Porifera

Sponge
Most basic animal
No nervous, digestive or circulatory
Nutrients are absorbed
Mesohyl between 2 cell layers
Sexual reproduction Cnidaria Jelly-fish
Aquatic animals
Cnydocytes capture prey
500 mya
Some muscular and nervous systems
Radial Symmetry Ctenophora Lobates
myoepethelial muscle
Mouth and anus
Colloblasts Platyhelminthes Flat Worms
Cephalization (brain)
Digestive system
Acoelomates
Bilateral Symmetry
Lay eggs Rotifera Rotifers- bdelloids
Sexual reproduction
Nervous system (brain)
Digestive tract
Coronal cilia

Nematoda Soybean cyst Nematode
Digestive tube w/ opening both ends
Sexual reproduction -eggs
Four nerves running along length
Many are parasitic
Bryozoans Sea Slugs, Anenomies, starfish
Hermaphrodites
Mineralized exoskeletons
Clonal Colonies
Lopophore w/ hollow tentacles Mollusca Blue Ringed Octopus
Invertebrates
Organized nervous system
Central cavity for respiration and excretion
Annelida Earthworm
Segmented
Repeated internal organs
Closed circulatory system
Collagen Arthropoda Blue Crab
Exoskeleton
Internal organs
Compound eyes
Tri segmented bodies
Mostly aquatic
Echinodermata Starfish
Radial Symmetry
Sexual reproduction
Asexual (regeneration) Chordata X-ray Tetra
First vertebrates
Notochord
Gills
Endostyle (filter feeding)
Muscular tail
Dorsal Neural tube
Agnatha Lampetra fluviatalis
no distinct stomach
Ectothermic
Jawless
No scales Placoderms
Placodermi
Armored body
First "super predator"
chondrichthyes Great White Shark
Cartilaginous fish
Skin covered in dermal teeth
two chambered heart
Gills- respiration Osteichthyes Atlantic Herring
Bony fish
Gills (a few lungfish)
Sexual reproduction (some hermaph)
Reptilia Reptiles
Respiratory (lungs)
Primarily land
Scaled skin, thin dermis
Ectotherms Crocadilians Nile Crocodiles
Four chambered heart
True cerebral cortex
Scales of keratine
98 mya
Similar to mammals&birds

Snakes Coast Garter Snake
Lack of eyelids & external ears
vestigial limbs
All organs long and thin
(heart in a sac)
Evolved from lizards
Lizards Thorny Devil
Scaled exterior
Scull evolved
Limbs & external ears
Colored vision
Turtles African Spurred tortoise
Retain ancient box skull
Carapace (shell)
200+ mya
Most ancient reptiles Aves House Sparrow
Beak (no teeth)
Bipedal
Feathered/winged
hollow bones
Flight = migration
parental care
Endotherm

Mammals Cheetah
bi and quadri pedal
Birth live young
Trilayered integumentary
Hair
Developed brain/nervous sytem
respiratory system: 2 lungs & diaphragm
Mammary glands
Intelligence in humans, & some lesser organisms Developing embryo
Sperm and Egg
Sexual Reproduction
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