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The Industrial Revolution


Brian Smith

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution
began in England and spread to
the rest of Western Europe and
the United States. Why did the Industrial
Revolution originate in England? Industrial Revolution
• Originated in England because of its natural resources
(e.g., coal, iron ore) and the invention and improvement of
the steam engine
• Spread to Europe and the United States
• Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries
• Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement
• Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries
• Rising economic powers that wanted to control raw
materials and markets throughout the world Why did the spread of
industrialism to Europe and the
United States accelerate
colonialism and imperialism? co·lo·nial·ism noun \kə-ˈlō-nē-ə-ˌli-zəm, -nyə-ˌli-\Definition of COLONIALISM
1: the quality or state of being colonial
2: something characteristic of a colony
3 a : control by one power over a dependent area or people : a policy advocating or
based on such control im·pe·ri·al·ism noun \im-ˈpir-ē-ə-ˌli-zəm\ Definition of IMPERIALISM
1: imperial government, authority, or system
2: the policy, practice, or advocacy of extending the power and dominion of a nation especially by direct territorial acquisitions or by gaining indirect control over the political or economic life of other areas; broadly : the extension or imposition of power, authority, or influence <union imperialism> With the Industrial Revolution
came an increased demand for
raw materials from the
Americas, Asia, and Africa. Advancements in technology
produced the Industrial
Revolution, while
advancements in science and
medicine altered the lives of
people living in the new
industrial cities. Cultural
changes soon followed. Technological advances that produced the Industrial
• Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves
• Steam engine: James Watt
• Cotton gin: Eli Whitney
• Process for making steel: Henry Bessemer Advancements in science and medicine
• Development of smallpox vaccination: Edward Jenner
• Discovery of bacteria: Louis Pasteur How did the Industrial
Revolution produce changes in
culture and society? Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized
• Population increase
• Increased standards of living for many but not all
• Improved transportation
• Urbanization
• Environmental pollution
• Increased education
• Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions
• Growth of the middle class Capitalism and market competition
fueled the Industrial Revolution. Wealth
increased the standard of living for
some. What was the role of capitalism and
market competition in the Industrial
Revolution? Capitalism
• Adam Smith’s The Wealth of Nations
• Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities
• Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class
• Dissatisfaction with poor workingconditions and the
unequal distribution of wealth in society “Civil government, so far as it is instituted for the security of property, is in reality instituted for the defense of the rich against the poor, or of those who have some property against those who have none at all.”
Adam Smith Smith claimed that an individual would invest a resource—for example, land or labor—so as to earn the highest possible return on it. Consequently, all uses of the resource must yield an equal rate of return Adam Smith was a scottish philosopher he came up with the idea of the invisible hand. That means that supply and demand will fluctuate until they are at equilibrium. What were some theories opposed to
capitalism? Socialism and communism
• Karl Marx’s The Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Kapital
• Response to the injustices of capitalism
• Importance to communists of redistribution of wealth Capital is dead labor, which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labor, and lives the more, the more labor it sucks.

Capital is money, capital is commodities. By virtue of it being value, it has acquired the occult ability to add value to itself. It brings forth living offspring, or, at the least, lays golden eggs.

Capital is reckless of the health or length of life of the laborer, unless under compulsion from society.

Capitalist production, therefore, develops technology, and the combining together of various processes into a social whole, only by sapping the original sources of all wealth - the soil and the labourer.

Democracy is the road to socialism.
Karl Marx Agricultural economies were based
on the family unit. The Industrial
Revolution had a significant impact
on the structure and function of the
family. How did the Industrial Revolution
impact the lives of women, children,
and the family? The nature of work in the factory system
• Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system
• Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and
children for wages
• Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high
• Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control
over the lives of their laborers How did the Industrial Revolution
affect slavery? Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery
•The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on
American plantations.
•The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade
and (later) slavery. What were the social effects of
the Industrial Revolution? Social effects of the Industrial Revolution
•Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor
•Introduction of reforms to end child labor
•Expansion of education
•Women’s increased demands for suffrage Why did workers organize
into labor unions? The rise of labor unions•Encouraged worker-organized strikes to
demand increased wages and improved working conditions•Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children•Wanted workers’ rights and collective bargaining between labor and management Nationalism motivated European nations to compete for colonial possessions. European economic, military, and political power forced colonized countries to trade on European terms. Industrially produced goods flooded colonial markets and displaced their traditional industries. Colonized peoples resisted European domination and responded in diverse ways to Western influences. Imperialism spread the economic, political, and
social philosophies of Europe throughout the world. Forms of imperialism
•Spheres of influence Imperialism in Africa and Asia
• European domination
• European conflicts carried to the colonies
• Christian missionary efforts
• Spheres of influence in China
• Suez Canal
• East India Company’s domination of Indian states
• America’s opening of Japan to trade On March 31 1854 representatives of Japan and the United States signed a historic treaty. A United States naval officer, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, negotiated tirelessly for several months with Japanese officials to achieve the goal of opening the doors of trade with Japan.

For two centuries, Japanese ports were closed to all but a few Dutch and Chinese traders. The United States hoped Japan would agree to open certain ports so American vessels could begin to trade with the mysterious island kingdom. In addition to interest in the Japanese market, America needed Japanese ports to replenish coal and supplies for the commercial whaling fleet.

On July 8,1853 four black ships led by USS Powhatan and commanded by Commodore Matthew Perry, anchored at Edo (Tokyo) Bay. Never before had the Japanese seen ships steaming with smoke. They thought the ships were "giant dragons puffing smoke." They did not know that steamboats existed and were shocked by the number and size of the guns on board the ships.

At age 60, Matthew Perry had a long and distinguished naval career. He knew that the mission to Japan would be his most significant accomplishment. He brought a letter from the President of the United States, Millard Fillmore, to the Emperor of Japan. He waited with his armed ships and refused to see any of the lesser dignitaries sent by the Japanese, insisting on dealing only with the highest emissaries of the Emperor.

The Japanese government realized that their country was in no position to defend itself against a foreign power, and Japan could not retain its isolation policy without risking war. On March 31, 1854, after weeks of long and tiresome talks, Perry received what he had so dearly worked for--a treaty with Japan. The treaty provided for:

1.Peace and friendship between the United States and Japan.
2.Opening of two ports to American ships at Shimoda and Hakodate
3.Help for any American ships wrecked on the Japanese coast and protection for shipwrecked persons
4.Permission for American ships to buy supplies, coal, water, and other necessary provisions in Japanese ports. Resistance to imperialism took many
forms, including armed conflict and
intellectual movements. What were some responses of
colonized peoples to European
imperialism? Responses of colonized peoples
• Armed conflicts (e.g., events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China)
• Rise of nationalism (e.g., first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s)
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