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Clayten How

on 14 August 2014

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Transcript of Geography

tropical rainforest
tropical rainforest
What are the characteristics of
tropical rainforest?


Group index number 9, 10, 11, 12 Clayten-12
Timothy Goh-11
How are in school
similar to/different from tropical
green spaces
Why are important
in school?
green spaces
How are in school similar to/different from tropical rainforest?
understanding the GI questions
green spaces
What are green spaces?
What are tropical rainforest?
where are green spaces found?
where are tropical rainforest found?
why are green spaces made?
why are tropical rainforest different from green spaces?
when are green spaces needed?
when are tropical rainforest used?
who uses green spaces?
who are connected to the rainforest?
how are green spaces useful in schools?
how are rainforest being used by people?
Why are important in school?
green spaces
Similarities and differences between the
tropical rainforest
landscaped garden
both supports and conserves biodiversity
both have a wide variety of flora and fauna
both help to reduce the greenhouse effect and global warming
both provide natural produce
school landscaped gardens have a smaller biodiversity than tropical rainforest
more adaptations in tropical rainforest due to competition
tropical rainforest are used for timber and space for many reasons
landscaped gardens have sunlight more equally to the plants
Why are green spaces important in school?
It helps the students relax and calm down when stressed.
Students can plant vegetation and grow fruits so they can learn about farming and will also be able to eat what their plants produce.
Green spaces can help cool down the area around it as the plants can provide shade and will absorb carbon dioxide produced by the students and teachers and release oxygen.
They can also help teachers teach their students about plants without having to look at their textbooks and will be more interactive and interesting to the students and teachers.
One characteristic of the tropical rainforest is that most trees found in the tropical rainforest have tall straight trunks with branches that spread out near the top of the tree . This enables the tree to maximise the amount of sunlight obtained by the tree.
trunk and branches
The leaves of these trees are broad and have waxy ,leathery or hairy surfaces. This surface allows the leaf to minimise loss of water through transpiration due to the high temperatures.
Also some of this leaves, have "drip tips" to allow rain water to run off easily so as to prevent fungi and bacteria from growing on the leaves.

Another characteristic of the tropical rainforest is that there is a lack of wind in the forest. This makes it hard for seed dispersal and pollination to take place by wind. Hence the plants in the rainforest adapt to this as their flowers and fruits are colourful and sweet smelling. This allows them to attract animals and insects for seed dispersal and pollination.

seed dispersal
What are the benefits of
tropical rainforest?
Plants in the tropical rainforest have many medicinal benefits. 25% of medicine comes from them, for example Quinine, for
treating malaria. Aspirin, used in
treatment for Hodgkin's disease and
leukaemia comes from the plants
in tropical rainforest as well.
Rainforest help prevent flooding when it rains. When it rains, the rainforest will intercept the rain water so the rainwater can seep through the ground so they can slowly released to rivers and oceans or stay in the ground as groundwater.
Without rainforest, the ground will be
exposed so the soil will be exposed to
the rain. This will give the soil less time
to allow the rain water to infiltrate the
ground and the water will flow off the
ground as surface runoff. This causes
flooding in the surrounding area.
Rainforests are home to a 50 percent of the world's plant and animals species, including many
endangered species. They are home to many indigenous people. Soil erosion is caused
as surface runoff washes
the top layers of soil away. The soil is often washed into rivers and this will affect the water quality. However, roots of trees help hold the topsoil together and less soil is washed away.
for listening :)
Tropical rainforest are thick and luxuriant evergreen forest found in areas with high rainfall between
1000mm to 2000mm
per year and high
annual temperatures ranges
between 20 to 30 degree
Oldest living ecosystem on earth. It has hot and wet Climate. All tropical rainforest are near the equator. It has three layers,
Emergent layer comprising of tall trees up to 50m with few branches which have crown that emerge from the canopy layer

Canopy Layer have trees up to 20m to 30m and have umbrella shape crown which grow together forming a continuous layer blocking most of the sunlight from reaching the below layers.

Undergrowth layer is dark and has thin and sparse vegetation comprising of shrubs, ferns, mosses, fungi and grasses. Forest floor is covered with leaves and branches forming leaf litter which decomposes to form humus.
It has Evergreen Trees with evergreen broad, waxy leaves with drip tips which remain green all year round and shed at any time.
The broad leaves helps to get sunlight and drip tips allows water to flow off preventing bacterial and fungal growth.
The trees have smooth and thin bark and branches to allow rainwater to flow easily.
It has buttress roots which are thick and spread out to support the weight of the heavy trunks.
Roots are shallow as surface water is easily available.
Branches are high up on trunks to receive maximum sunlight.
In the Emergent layer tall trees are found while in the Canopy layer Epiphytes, Lianas and parasitic plants are found.
The canopy has very little air movement in it hence humidity is high in this layer.
Based on our investigations, observations and analysis of data collected we can see that they are many similarities between the green spaces and the tropical rainforest .In the first place we observed that the objective of creating these green spaces was to recreate the environment of these forest but in a smaller scale so that we could experience the its benefits in an urban surrounding.

The few similarities between the green spaces in schools and the tropical rainforest are that they both have similar climatic conditions i.e. hot and humid with high rainfall. The plants in both show adaptation like drip tip leaves, buttress roots, smooth trunks etc. They both support biodiversity and help us reconnect with nature. They both provide oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, helping reduce the greenhouse effect.

The few differences which we have observed are that school green spaces are created in much smaller scale and in an urban setting than tropical rainforest and hence are not as dense as tropical rainforest and without three distinct layers. We observed that the canopy layer is missing in our school landscape garden hence there is more sunlight. Also our school landscape garden support a smaller biodiversity and do not have dangerous flora and fauna. We also observed that unlike tropical rainforest which acts as air purifiers and water catchment agents in a global way, school landscape gardens purifies air in a smaller scale, does not store water and lowers the surrounding temperature.

We concluded that the school green spaces are very important as they give us an opportunity to experience and study and reconnect with nature within the boundaries of the urban environment, teaching us to respect nature. It also teaches us the importance of biodiversity and helps us understand its impact on our everyday lives and teaches us to be responsible to it. It provides habitats for many species and acts as a natural conservation in an urban setting. It teaches us to make wise choices related to natural resources.

Moreover, we felt that school green spaces plays an important role in our development as it allows students to be physically active to keep them fit. The natural environment of school landscape gardens helps student learn, understand, and develop new skills. The exposure to natural surroundings helps the children to develop cognitive, emotional, and behavioral connections with their peers and biophysical environments. Learning become more hands-on, the students learn to develop focus, patience, cooperation, leadership, teamwork and social skills which are the most important skills one can learn.
We also concluded that spending time in green spaces would help in restoring the mind from mental fatigue of studies, contributing to improved performance. Besides the above advantages, we observed that green spaces in schools helps in reducing heat build-up and reduces temperatures there, and improving air quality. It also makes our schoolyard diversified and beautiful.
Thus we conclude that our school green space is an important element which provides many benefits in giving a conducive learning environment and makes us more responsible towards nature and teaches us to respect it and to make wise choices related to it.This is very important, especially in the present age where there is a need for young men to grow up to responsible global citizens.
why are tropical rainforest and green spaces important?

When are Green spaces damaged?
When are tropical rainforest endangered?
who can protect and destroy Tropical Rainforest?
who can create, maintain and protect green spaces?

how are tropical rainforest and green spaces beneficial to us?

how can you create maintain and promote green spaces?

The three distinctive layers is not seen in the school landscape garden as in the tropical rainforest
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