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Transcript of Theory Prezi
Britni Miltenberger Educational Psychology Theorists Jean Piaget Born: November 17, 1896
Died: June 11, 1934
One of his major theories included the Zone of Proximal Distal (Cherry, n.d.). Lev Vygotsky Lawrence Kohlberg Born: April 29, 1917
Died: Sept.25, 2005
Russian-Born American Psychologist
Known for Ecological Systems Theory (Ormrod, 2012). Urie Bronfenbrenner Covington established the self-worth theory. (Ormrod, 2012). Martin Covington Cherry, K. (n.d.). Lev Vygotsky Biography. Retrieved January 9, 2012 from, http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesmz/p/vygotsky.htm.
Ormrod, J. E. (2009). Essentials of educational psychology (2nd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.
Piaget Biography. (n.d.). Retrieved January 8, 2012 from, http://www.biography.com/people/jean-piaget-9439915?page=2 References Piaget's Sensorimotor and
Preoperationl Stages Zone of Proximal Distal According to Ormrod (2012), the zone of proximal development (ZPD) is defined as, "range of tasks that a child can perform with the help and guidance of others but cannot yet perform independently" (pg. G-7).
A child's ZPD includes learning and problem solving abilities that are just beginning to emerge and develop (Ormrod, 2012).
Parents and teachers can foster learning by providing educational opportunities that lie within a child's zone of proximal development (Cherry, n.d.).
Children's ZPDs change over time. When a child masters one task; a more complex task takes its place (Ormrod, 2012). Kohlberg's
Three Levels and Six Stages of Moral Reasoning Level I: Preconventional Morality
Age Range: Most apparent in preschool and elementary-aged children.
Stage 1: Punishment Avoidance and Obedience: Make decisions based on what is best for individual. People only obey rules if they are established by more powerful individuals.
Stage 2: Exchange of Favors: This stage is when individuals recognize others have needs. Individuals may try to satisfy others needs as long as their own needs are being met as well (i.e. You scratch my back and I'll Scratch Yours) (Ormrod, 2012). Ecological Systems Theory Ecological Systems Theorists think that in order to fully understand/explain a child’s development, the environmental contexts of the child’s life must be considered (Ormrod, 2012).
Environmental contexts include everyday contacts (i.e. home, school, church etc.) but also broader environments
Broader environments include: the community and its resources, the federal government, laws/policies of society (Ormrod, 2012).
The layers of environments/contexts interact with an affect one another in a many different ways. For example, community employment opportunities may affect a family’s ability to purchase food for their children for nourishment (Ormrod, 2012). Self-Worth Theory This theory explains that protecting one’s own sense of competence (i.e. one’s self-worth) is of high importance for human beings (Ormrod, 2012).
A person, who is successful in daily activities, is a way to keep and enhance self-worth.
When a person suspects that he/she may fail at a task; they may engage in self-handicapping (Ormrod, 2012).
Self-handicapping may include procrastinating to the last minute for a task; or performing poorly on purpose (Ormrod, 2012).
Though self-handicapping decreases the chance of success, it also allows people to have justification for their failures.
In the end, through self-handicapping, people are able to maintain their self-worth (Ormrod, 2012). Born: Aug. 9, 1896, in Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
Died: Sept. 6 1980, in Geneva, Switzerland
Piaget is responsible for developing entirely new
fields of scientific study, including cognitive
theory and developmental psychology.
Piaget theorized that cognitive
development occurred in 4 stages ("Piaget Biography," n.d.). Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-Age 2): Schemes are based mostly on behaviors/perceptions. Children cannot think about things that are immediately in front of them. They instead focus on what they are doing/seeing at the moment (Ormrod, 2012).
Preoperational Stage (Age 2 to Age 6/7): Children can now think/talk about things beyond their immediate experiences. This true in part of their developing language skills. At this stage, children are still unable to reason in logical adult-like ways (Ormrod, 2012). Piaget's Concrete Operations and Formal Operations Concrete Operations (Age 6/7 to age 11/12): During this stage adult-like logic appears but it is limited to reasoning about concrete, real-life situations (Ormrod, 2012).
Formal Operations (Age 11-12 through adulthood): During this stage, logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas as well as to concrete objects/situations. This is also when the necessary capabilities essential for advanced reasoning in science/math appear (Ormrod, 2012). Born: October, 25, 1927 in New York City
Died: January 19, 1987
He developed Levels of Moral Reasoning
(Ormrod, 2012). Kohlberg's
Three Levels and Six Stages of Moral Reasoning (Continued) Level II: Conventional Morality
Age Range: Few older elementary school students, some junior high students, and many high school students (Ormrod, 2012).
Stage 3: Good boy/Good girl: During this stage, people make decisions based on what actions will please others. Individuals are concerned about maintaining relationships through sharing, trust, and loyalty (Ormrod, 2012).
Stage 4: During this stage, individuals look to society as a whole for guidelines for right/wrong. Rules are known as necessary for keeping society running smoothly and it is important to obey the rules and the rules are viewed as "inflexible" (Ormrod, 2012, pg. 260). Kohlberg's
Three Levels and
Six Stages of Moral Reasoning (Continued) Level III: Postconventional Morality
Age Range: Rarely seen before college (Stage 6 is extremely rare even in adults
Stage 5: Social Contract: People recognize that rules represent agreements among many individuals about appropriate behavior. Rules are viewed as useful mechanisms that help to maintain social order. Rules are viewed as flexible; rules that do not serve society's best interests could or should be changed (Ormrod, 2012, pg. 260).
Stage 6: Universal Ethical Principle: This stage is viewed as being extremely hypothetical. The few people who reach this stage answer to a strong inner conscience. They also are willing to disobey laws that may violate their own ethical principles (Ormrod, 2012).