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States of Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, Drugs

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Jake Larsh

on 10 December 2015

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Transcript of States of Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, Drugs

States of Consciousness: Sleep, Dreams, Hypnosis, Drugs
I. Consciousness and Rhythms
II. Dreams
Why do you think We Dream?
III. Hypnosis
IV. Drugs
Anticipation Guide 12/10
Detail 4
Consciousness Brainstorm - not rain storm
A. Levels of Consciousness
1. Conscious - you are aware of this
2. Preconscious - stuff you aren't aware of but can attend to
3. Subconscious - not aware of and affects us
4. Nonconscious - Body processes not controlled by mind
5. Unconscious - Cognitive activity outside our awareness
B. Inducing Consciousness
- Daydreaming, Drowsiness, Dreaming

- Hallucinations, Food/Oxygen Starvation

- Sensory Deprivation, Hypnosis, Meditation
C. Rhythms - What are some different ones throughout the day you do?

1. Circadian - Once a Day
2. Ultradian Rhythms - More than once a day
3. Infradian Rhythms - Monthly Rhythms
4. Neuropsychological Effects
Superchiasmatic Gland --> Pineal Gland
Thomas Edison is a bad man
D. Sleep Cycles
1. Stage One - Transition - Alpha, Beta, Theta Waves
Hypnagogic Jerk - Sleeping in Class?

2. Stage 2 - Spindles - Theta Waves
3. Stages three and four - Delta Wave
Body is Relaxing
Do not Dream Here
Sleep Walking and Sleep Talking, Night Terrors, Snoring

4. Rem Sleep (Stage 5?)
Oddly is comprised of mostly Beta Waves
Paradoxical Sleep
Dream Here (NightMARES)
Why do you think we sleep?
E. Top Reasons we sleep:
1. Protection
2. Recuperation
3. Make Memories
4. Creative Thinking
5. Growth
6. I don't Know - IDK <-- Vernacular
What happens when you don't sleep?
F. Sleep Loss
1. Story of Randy Gardner
2. Effects of not sleeping:
Get Fat
REM Rebound
G. Sleep Disorders
1. Insomnia - What do you know?
2. Narcolepsy - Fall Asleep at any moment, into REM
3 . Sleep Apnea
Without Breath
Old, Overweight, High Blood Pressure
4. Night Terrors
Nightmares VS Night Terrors
5. Sleep Walking & Sleep Talking
6. Restless Leg Syndrome
Caused by caffeine, other drugs, anxiety, obesity, pregnancy, certain diseases
B. Sigmund Freud

1. Everything you do comes from a subconscious drive to fulfill the need for
Sex and Aggression
What perspective of psychology does Freud follow?

Where have we talked about Freud before?
2. Austrian Clinical Psychologist in the 1920s
3. ID, Ego, Super Ego - Our Subconscious, Conscience

- Inner Desires - the sexual, aggressive side of you - WANTS EVERYTHING
Super Ego
- Super Moral - the prude in you
The Ego
- this is you balancing everything within yourself
4. He believed in dream interpretation and that dreams were a means of wish fulfillment.
A. The Egyptians and Ancient Greeks

1. The Gods Way of Communicating with You
5. Manifest Vs Latent Content


- the Dream's Story Line

- the Dream's Hidden Meaning - according to Freud - Sexual and Aggressive
I'm Dreaming Songs
C. Dream Fun Facts
1. Situational/Environmental
2. Dream during REM
3. Nightmares VS Night Terrors
4. Sensory Stimuli
5. Cannot Learn Whilst You Sleep, But Vivid Dreams help you learn
6. Serial Processing VS Parallel Processing

D. Types of Dreams
1. Daydream – Walter Mitty
2. Lucid Dreams – How to
3. Series Dreams
4. Reoccurring Dreams
5. Prophetic Dreams
6. Epic Dreams

E. Why we dream
1. Wish Fulfillment
2. Information Processing Theory
3. Develop and Preserve Neural Pathways
4. Activation-Synthesis (Make sense of pictures)
5. Cognitively Develop

A. Franz Anton Mesmer - Witchcraft? Hypnosis?

B. The Role of the Hypnotist and Hypnotized
1. The Hypnotist
2. The Hypnotized

C. Explanation (Group?)
1. Social Cognitive of Hypnosis
Stage Hypnosis
2. Hidden Observer - Dissociation
3. Ernest Hilgard
Susceptibility Scales
D. Hypnosis Can:
Create amnesia of the hypnosis
Relieve Pain
Alter Perceptions
Help Relax
E. Hypnosis Cannot:
Give Superhuman Strength
Enhance Memory
Regress you to Childhood
Bring you to a past life

Agree or Disagree

Addictive drugs corrupt quickly
Addiction cannot be overcome voluntarily
Addiction is a disease
Addiction to drugs is the same as addiction to gambling

A. Basic Concepts
1. Psychoactive Drugs
2. Gateway Drugs and Influences
What is the most common Gateway Drug?
3. Tolerance
4. Dependence
5. Addiction
6. Withdrawal
B. Mythology
C. Depressants - Slow you down

1. Alcohol
: Decreases Dopamine
: Dizziness, slurred speech, impaired judgment, lower inhibitions, depression, memory loss, reduced awareness and self control, sex and alcohol = bad things
Respiratory depression and death at high doses
2. Barbiturates
: Inhibits neural arousal centers
Decreases anxiety, increases relaxation
At high doses respiratory depression and death
Very addictive and dangerous when mixed with other depressants
Examples: Seconal, Nebutal,
3. Tranquilizers - Anti Anxiety - Sub Group of Barbiturates
Brain: Inhibits neural arousal centers
Reduce anxiety without inducing sleep
Example: Xanax, Valium, Librium

4. Opiates/Narcotics
Brain: Stimulate receptors for endogenous endorphins but they are a depressant in their effects on behavior
• Lethargy, bliss, extreme relaxation, euphoria, relieves pain
• Brain stops producing its own endorphins leaving you in pain and needing a fix
• Old school example Laudanum – treat cough, loose stool, fussy babies
• May cause impaired cognitive abilities, sweating, nausea and respiratory depression
• Highly addictive and are available only through prescriptions or through illicit means

D. Stimulants
1. Caffeine
Accelerates heart rate, constricts blood vessels
Reduces levels of adenosine, a neurochemical

Behavior: Irritability, anxiety, insomnia or polyuria (high urine output)
2. Amphetamines/Methamphetamines

• Increase body temp and heart rate
• Increase dopamine, and norepinephrine

• Addictive
• Produces euphoria
• Motor dysfunction at high levels
• Diet Pills, Ritalin

4. Cocaine
• Stimulates heart and blood pressure
• Increase dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine release

• Feel as though they have increased mental and social abilities
• Highly addictive
• Depressive crash

3. Nicotine

• Stimulates acetylcholine transmission
• Increase heart rate

• Depressant behavioral effects such as decreasing appetite while increasing heart rate and respiration
• Euphoria/dizziness

E. Hallucinogens
1. Manufactured - LSD, PCP, Ecstasy (MDMA)
Brain: Affects Serotonin - May act as a stimulant, depressant, hallucinogen, analgesic

Trips - Good/Bad
Sensory Synesthesia

2. Non-Manufactured: Marijuana, Mescaline (Peyote Cactus), and Psilocybin (Mushrooms)

Brain/behavior: Out of body experience, mild hallucination, HIGH Psychological Dependence, Time Distortion, trips
Stays in blood, hair roots, etc.
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