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European Nations and American Indians Compete in North America
Transcript of European Nations and American Indians Compete in North America
American Indians How were American Indians
forced off their lands? Conflicts Among American Indians Who Were the Leaders? How did colonist and American Indians cooperate? Cooperation in North America 1610 - Powhatan Wars - Jamestown, Virginia - by 1646 colonists took most of Powahtan land Agreements are Broken Europeans settle North America 1565 - Spain founds St. Augustine in Florida - 1st European settlement in N. A. 1607 - England founds Jamestown (Virginia) 1608 - France founds Quebec (Canada, on St Lawrence River) 1769 - Spain (Fr. Serra) found mission in San Diego The Value of Resources Value - European saw value ($) in raw materials here Raw Materials - come from earth (metals, wood) and can be changed for human use Spain - gold, silver France and Netherlands - beaver furs England - tobacco Trading Posts - Established to trade raw materials and other goods with American Indians Land Claims Lead to Disagreements Conflict - struggle or disagreement 1664 - English take over New Amsterdam rename to New York have power over important ports 1754 - War between French and English over resource-rich Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys 1680 - Pueblo Revolt
group of American Indians forced Spanish out of present day New Mexico over slavery 1600's and 1700's some groups worked together benefiting each other some became allies during wars
Ally -person or group that helps another for a common purpose treaties - written political agreements between groups were signed to end conflicts American Indians Help English Settlers first settlers depended on Indians for survival Squanto - a Wampanoag - helped Plymouth settlers with hunting, fishing, and crops English trade European goods for food in Jamestown legend, Pocahontas saved John Smith from death at the hand of her father Indians teach English to raise tobacco John Rolfe - raises successful tobacco crop in 1612 The Effect of Interaction New ways and goods gathered by both Colonists learn and get which crops to grow how to preserve food medicinal plants safe plants to eat Indians learn and get animals like horses, cattle and sheep metal items - knives, kettles, axes cloth, beads and other decorative items 1637 - Pequot War - New England
Pequot Massacre - Colonists and allies burn Pequot village, kill hundreds
- massacre - cruel killing of many people 1675 - King Philip's War - New England
-Metacom "King Philip", a Wampanoag chief united several tribes against English
- lasted about 1 year with heavy damage on both sides,
eventually Metacom defeated 1754 - French and Indian War - Over land in Ohio River Valley
- French/Indian allies fight British.
- French winning until Iroquois joined British
- 1763 Treaty of Paris signed
English get Canada and all land east of the Mississippi
River -- soon broke promise and moved west of
Mississippi https://jeopardylabs.com/play/the-fight-for-a-continent9 Hundreds of treaties signed by U.S. government and American Indians Not always fair Indians lacked understanding, language differences one leader might be bribed (paid) to sign without approval of other leaders Goal of many treaties - remove American Indians from their land 1820 - Treaty of Doak's Stand - U.S. and Choctaw Choctaw get new land west of Mississippi River in exchange for current land Schools built to help those who want to stay assimilate (Become like people around you) Struggles in the West 1830's U. S. Government begins to remove all American Indians from lands east of Mississippi River Trail of Tears - Cherokee and others forced to move to present day Oklahoma (Indian Territory) Settlers move west, take more land Indians fight back 1864 - Sand Creek Massacre - several hundred Cheyenne killed 1890 - Wounded Knee - Lakota indians surrender, hundreds killed as they were returning to their reservation Last major armed resistance to U. S. rule American Indian Conflicts Rivalries (competition over same thing) over land and resources cause conflicts Europeans Cause New Conflicts Europeans cause new rivalries 1600's - Fur trade - Different Indian groups trade with French and Dutch battles for new land with animals to hunt Beaver Wars - Iroquois fight Huron and French for control of fur trade - treaty signed 1701 Conflicts Move Westward Tribes displaced by wars move west Ojibwa displaced by Iroquois move to Great Lakes - use guns to force Lakota to move to the plains Links to More information Wounded Knee http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/knee.htm Sand Creek
http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/resources/archives/four/sandcrk.htm Trail of Tears
http://www.history.com/topics/trail-of-tears Chief Logan
1774 First helped settlers
Family killed by traders
United Mingo and Shawnee to attack settlers
Lord Dunmore sent British troops who defeated Logan
Logan would not sign treaty Chief Tecumseh
1800's United tribes to fight for Mississippi and Ohio river vallies
Would not acknowledge treaty giving up Indian land
Defeated by U. S. troops in 1811 Struggle for Justice Cherokee and other tribes assimilate Settlers still move onto Cherokee land Force Cherokee and others to Oklahoma President Jackson gets Indian Removal Act passed 1820's 1830 1832 Chief John Ross (Cherokee leader) presents case to Supreme Court to stop the take over Chief Justice Marshall agrees with Chief Ross President Jackson ignores the decision 1838 Trail of Tears - Troops force Cherokee west Lakota trade for European horses and guns and fight other plains Indians, until settlers begin arriving in 1800's Struggle for Unity