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obligations and contracts
Transcript of obligations and contracts
OBLIGATIONS OBLIGATIONS AND CONTRACTS BAX, COVAR, ENRIQUEZ, PASCO, VALDERRAMA EXTINGUISHMENT OF OBLIGATIONS ARTICLE 1193 Obligations for whose fulfillment a day certain has been fixed, shall be demandable only when that day comes.
Obligations with a resolutory period take effect at once, but terminate upon arrival of the day certain.
A day certain is understood to be that which must necessarily come, although it may not be known when.
If the uncertainty consists in whether the day will come or not, the obligation is conditional, and it shall be regulated by the rules of the preceding Section. ARTICLE 1163 Every person obliged to give something is also obliged to take care of it with the proper diligence of a good father of a family, unless the law or the stipulation of the parties requires another standard of care. ARTICLE 1164 The creditor has a right to the fruits of the thing from the time the obligation to deliver it arises. However, he shall acquire no real right over it until the same has been delivered to him. OBLIGATIONS
WITH A PERIOD ARTICLE 1179 ARTICLE 1156: Every obligation whose performance does not depend upon a future or uncertain event, or upon a past event unknown to the parties, is demandable at once.
Every obligation which contains a resolutory condition shall also be demandable, without prejudice to the effects of the happening of the even ARTICLE 1181 In conditional obligations, the acquisition of rights, as well as the extinguishment or loss of those already acquired, shall depend upon the happening of the event which constitutes the condition. GENERAL PROVISIONS An obligation is a juridical necessity to give
to do, or not to do. ARTICLE 1157: Obligations arise from:
3. Quasi - contracts
4. Acts or omissions punished by law. ARTICLE 1158 Obligations derived from law are not presumed.
Only those expressly determined in this code or
in special laws are demandable and shall be
regulated by the percepts of the law which
establishes them; and as to what has not been
foreseen by the provisions of this book. ARTICLE 1159 Obligations arising from contracts have the force of law between the contracting parties and should be complied with in good faith. ARTICLE 1160 Art. 1160. Obligations derived from quasi-contracts shall be subject to the provisions of Chapter 1, Title XVII, of this Book ARTICLE 1161 Civil obligations arising from criminal offenses shall be governed by the penal laws, subject to the provisions of Article 2177, and of the pertinent provisions of Chapter 2, Preliminary Title, on Human Relations, and of Title XVIII of this Book, regulating damages. ARTICLE 1162 Obligations derived from quasi-delicts shall be governed by the provisions of Chapter 2, Title XVII of this Book, and by special laws NATURE AND EFFECT OF OBLIGATIONS ARTICLE 1165 When what is to be delivered is a determinate thing, the creditor, in addition to the right granted him by Article 1170, may compel the debtor to make the delivery.
If the thing is indeterminate or generic, he may ask that the obligation be complied with at the expense of the debtor.
If the obligor delays, or has promised to deliver the same thing to two or more persons who do not have the same interest, he shall be responsible for any fortuitous event until he has effected the delivery. ARTICLE 1166 The obligation to give a determinate thing includes that of delivering all its accessions and accessories, even though they may not have been mentioned. ARTICLE 1167 If a person obliged to do something fails to do it, the same shall be executed at his cost.
This same rule shall be observed if he does it in contravention of the tenor of the obligation. Furthermore, it may be decreed that what has been poorly done be undone. ARTICLE 1168 When the obligation consists in not doing, and the obligor does what has been forbidden him, it shall also be undone at his expense. ARTICLE 1170 Those who in the performance of their obligations are guilty of fraud, negligence, or delay, and those who in any manner contravene the tenor thereof, are liable for damages. ARTICLE 1172 ARTICLE 1174 Except in cases expressly specified by the law, or when it is otherwise declared by stipulation, or when the nature of the obligation requires the assumption of risk, no person shall be responsible for those events which could not be foreseen, or which, though foreseen, were inevitable. Those obliged to deliver or to do something incur in delay from the time the obligee judicially or extrajudicially demands from them the fulfillment of their obligation. ARTICLE 1169 However, the demand by the creditor shall not be necessary in order that delay may exist:
(1) When the obligation or the law expressly so declare; or
(2) When from the nature and the circumstances of the obligation it appears that the designation of the time when the thing is to be delivered or the service is to be rendered was a controlling motive for the establishment of the contract; or
(3) When demand would be useless, as when the obligor has rendered it beyond his power to perform.
In reciprocal obligations, neither party incurs in delay if the other does not comply or is not ready to comply in a proper manner with what is incumbent upon him. From the moment one of the parties fulfills his obligation, delay by the other begins. ARTICLE 1171 Responsibility arising from fraud is demandable in all obligations. Any waiver of an action for future fraud is void. Responsibility arising from negligence in the performance of every kind of obligation is also demandable, but such liability may be regulated by the courts, according to the circumstances. ARTICLE 1173 The fault or negligence of the obligor consists in the omission of that diligence which is required by the nature of the obligation and corresponds with the circumstances of the persons, of the time and of the place. When negligence shows bad faith, the provisions of Articles 1171 and 2201, paragraph 2, shall apply
If the law or contract does not state the diligence which is to be observed in the performance, that which is expected of a good father of a family shall be required. ARTICLE 1175 Usurious transactions shall be governed by special laws. ARTICLE 1176 The receipt of the principal by the creditor without reservation with respect to the interest, shall give rise to the presumption that said interest has been paid.
The receipt of a later installment of a debt without reservation as to prior installments, shall likewise raise the presumption that such installments have been paid. ARTICLE 1177 The creditors, after having pursued the property in possession of the debtor to satisfy their claims, may exercise all the rights and bring all the actions of the latter for the same purpose, save those which are inherent in his person; they may also impugn the acts which the debtor may have done to defraud them. ARTICLE 1178 Subject to the laws, all rights acquired in virtue of an obligation are transmissible, if there has been no stipulation to the contrary. DIFFERENT KINDS
OF OBLIGATIONS ARTICLE 1180 When the debtor binds himself to pay when his means permit him to do so, the obligation shall be deemed to be one with a period, subject to the provisions of Article 1197. ARTICLE 1182 When the fulfillment of the condition depends upon the sole will of the debtor, the conditional obligation shall be void. If it depends upon chance or upon the will of a third person, the obligation shall take effect in conformity with the provisions of this Code. ARTICLE 1183 Impossible conditions, those contrary to good customs or public policy and those prohibited by law shall annul the obligation which depends upon them. If the obligation is divisible, that part thereof which is not affected by the impossible or unlawful condition shall be valid.
The condition not to do an impossible thing shall be considered as not having been agreed upon ARTICLE 1184 The condition that some event happen at a determinate time shall extinguish the obligation as soon as the time expires or if it has become indubitable that the event will not take place. ARTICLE 1185 The condition that some event will not happen at a determinate time shall render the obligation effective from the moment the time indicated has elapsed, or if it has become evident that the event cannot occur. ARTICLE 1186 If no time has been fixed, the condition shall be deemed fulfilled at such time as may have probably been contemplated, bearing in mind the nature of the obligation. If no time has been fixed, the condition shall be deemed fulfilled at such time as may have probably been contemplated, bearing in mind the nature of the obligation. ARTICLE 1187 The effects of a conditional obligation to give, once the condition has been fulfilled, shall retroact to the day of the constitution of the obligation. Nevertheless, when the obligation imposes reciprocal prestations upon the parties, the fruits and interests during the pendency of the condition shall be deemed to have been mutually compensated. If the obligation is unilateral, the debtor shall appropriate the fruits and interests received, unless from the nature and circumstances of the obligation it should be inferred that the intention of the person constituting the same was different. In obligations to do and not to do, the courts shall determine, in each case, the retroactive effect of the condition that has been complied with. ARTICLE 1188 The creditor may, before the fulfillment of the condition, bring the appropriate actions for the preservation of his right.
The debtor may recover what during the same time he has paid by mistake in case of a suspensive condition. ARTICLE 1189 When the conditions have been imposed with the intention of suspending the efficacy of an obligation to give, the following rules shall be observed in case of the improvement, loss or deterioration of the thing during the pendency of the condition:
(1) If the thing is lost without the fault of the debtor, the obligation shall be extinguished;
(2) If the thing is lost through the fault of the debtor, he shall be obliged to pay damages; it is understood that the thing is lost when it perishes, or goes out of commerce, or disappears in such a way that its existence is unknown or it cannot be recovered;
(3) When the thing deteriorates without the fault of the debtor, the impairment is to be borne by the creditor;
(4) If it deteriorates through the fault of the debtor, the creditor may choose between the rescission of the obligation and its fulfillment, with indemnity for damages in either case;
(5) If the thing is improved by its nature, or by time, the improvement shall inure to the benefit of the creditor;
(6) If it is improved at the expense of the debtor, he shall have no other right than that granted to the usufructuary. ARTICLE 1190 When the conditions have for their purpose the extinguishment of an obligation to give, the parties, upon the fulfillment of said conditions, shall return to each other what they have received.
In case of the loss, deterioration or improvement of the thing, the provisions which, with respect to the debtor, are laid down in the preceding article shall be applied to the party who is bound to return.
As for the obligations to do and not to do, the provisions of the second paragraph of Article 1187 shall be observed as regards the effect of the extinguishment of the obligation. ARTICLE 1191 The power to rescind obligations is implied in reciprocal ones, in case one of the obligors should not comply with what is incumbent upon him. ARTICLE 1192 In case both parties have committed a breach of the obligation, the liability of the first infractor shall be equitably tempered by the courts. If it cannot be determined which of the parties first violated the contract, the same shall be deemed extinguished, and each shall bear his own damages. The injured party may choose between the fulfillment and the rescission of the obligation, with the payment of damages in either case. He may also seek rescission, even after he has chosen fulfillment, if the latter should become impossible.
The court shall decree the rescission claimed, unless there be just cause authorizing the fixing of a period.
This is understood to be without prejudice to the rights of third persons who have acquired the thing, in accordance with Articles 1385 and 1388 and the Mortgage Law. ARTICLE 1194 In case of loss, deterioration or improvement of the thing before the arrival of the day certain, the rules in Article 1189 shall be observed. ARTICLE 1195 Anything paid or delivered before the arrival of the period, the obligor being unaware of the period or believing that the obligation has become due and demandable, may be recovered, with the fruits and interests. ARTICLE 1196 Whenever in an obligation a period is designated, it is presumed to have been established for the benefit of both the creditor and the debtor, unless from the tenor of the same or other circumstances it should appear that the period has been established in favor of one or of the other. ARTICLE 1197 If the obligation does not fix a period, but from its nature and the circumstances it can be inferred that a period was intended, the courts may fix the duration thereof.
The courts shall also fix the duration of the period when it depends upon the will of the debtor.
In every case, the courts shall determine such period as may under the circumstances have been probably contemplated by the parties. Once fixed by the courts, the period cannot be changed by them. ARTICLE 1198 The debtor shall lose every right to make use of the period:
(1) When after the obligation has been contracted, he becomes insolvent, unless he gives a guaranty or security for the debt;
(2) When he does not furnish to the creditor the guaranties or securities which he has promised;
(3) When by his own acts he has impaired said guaranties or securities after their establishment, and when through a fortuitous event they disappear, unless he immediately gives new ones equally satisfactory;
(4) When the debtor violates any undertaking, in consideration of which the creditor agreed to the period;
(5) When the debtor attempts to abscond. ARTICLE 1199 A person alternatively bound by different prestations shall completely perform one of them.
The creditor cannot be compelled to receive part of one and part of the other undertaking. ARTCLE 1200 The right of choice belongs to the debtor, unless it has been expressly granted to the creditor.
The debtor shall have no right to choose those prestations which are impossible, unlawful or which could not have been the object of the obligation. ARTICLE 1201 The choice shall produce no effect except from the time it has been communicated. ARTICLE 1202 The debtor shall lose the right of choice when among the prestations whereby he is alternatively bound, only one is practicable. ARTICLE 1203 If through the creditor's acts the debtor cannot make a choice according to the terms of the obligation, the latter may rescind the contract with damages. ARTICLE 1204 The creditor shall have a right to indemnity for damages when, through the fault of the debtor, all the things which are alternatively the object of the obligation have been lost, or the compliance of the obligation has become impossible.
The indemnity shall be fixed taking as a basis the value of the last thing which disappeared, or that of the service which last became impossible.
Damages other than the value of the last thing or service may also be awarded. ARTICLE 1205 When the choice has been expressly given to the creditor, the obligation shall cease to be alternative from the day when the selection has been communicated to the debtor.
Until then the responsibility of the debtor shall be governed by the following rules:
(1) If one of the things is lost through a fortuitous event, he shall perform the obligation by delivering that which the creditor should choose from among the remainder, or that which remains if only one subsists;
(2) If the loss of one of the things occurs through the fault of the debtor, the creditor may claim any of those subsisting, or the price of that which, through the fault of the former, has disappeared, with a right to damages;
(3) If all the things are lost through the fault of the debtor, the choice by the creditor shall fall upon the price of any one of them, also with indemnity for damages.
The same rules shall be applied to obligations to do or not to do in case one, some or all of the prestations should become impossible. ARTICLE 1206 When only one prestation has been agreed upon, but the obligor may render another in substitution, the obligation is called facultative.
The loss or deterioration of the thing intended as a substitute, through the negligence of the obligor, does not render him liable. But once the substitution has been made, the obligor is liable for the loss of the substitute on account of his delay, negligence or fraud. ARTICLE 1207 ARTICLE 1208 If from the law, or the nature or the wording of the obligations to which the preceding article refers the contrary does not appear, the credit or debt shall be presumed to be divided into as many shares as there are creditors or debtors, the credits or debts being considered distinct from one another, subject to the Rules of Court governing the multiplicity of suits ARTICLE 1210 The indivisibility of an obligation does not necessarily give rise to solidarity. Nor does solidarity of itself imply indivisibility. ARTICLE 1211 Solidarity may exist although the creditors and the debtors may not be bound in the same manner and by the same periods and conditions. The concurrence of two or more creditors or of two or more debtors in one and the same obligation does not imply that each one of the former has a right to demand, or that each one of the latter is bound to render, entire compliance with the prestation. There is a solidary liability only when the obligation expressly so states, or when the law or the nature of the obligation requires solidarity. ARTICLE 1209 If the division is impossible, the right of the creditors may be prejudiced only by their collective acts, and the debt can be enforced only by proceeding against all the debtors. If one of the latter should be insolvent, the others shall not be liable for his share. ARTICLE 1212 Each one of the solidary creditors may do whatever may be useful to the others, but not anything which may be prejudicial to the latter ARTICLE 1213 A solidary creditor cannot assign his rights without the consent of the others ARTICLE 1214 The debtor may pay any one of the solidary creditors; but if any demand, judicial or extrajudicial, has been made by one of them, payment should be made to him. ARTICLE 1216 The creditor may proceed against any one of the solidary debtors
The demand made against one of them shall not be an obstacle to those which may subsequently be directed against the others ARTICLE 1217 Payment made by one of the solidary debtors extinguishes the obligation. If two or more solidary debtors offer to pay, the creditor may choose which offer to accept ARTICLE 1219 The remission made by the creditor of the share which affects one of the solidary debtors does not release the latter from his responsibility towards the co-debtors, in case the debt had been totally paid by anyone of them before the remission was effected ARTICLE 1220 The remission of the whole obligation, obtained by one of the solidary debtors, does not entitle him to reimbursement from his co-debtors ARTICLE 1221 If the thing has been lost or if the prestation has become impossible without the fault of the solidary debtors, the obligation shall be extinguished. ARTICLE 122 A solidary debtor may, in actions filed by the creditor, avail himself of all defenses which are derived from the nature of the obligation and of those which are personal to him, or pertain to his own share. ARTICLE 1223 The divisibility or indivisibility of the things that are the object of obligations in which there is only one debtor and only one creditor does not alter or modify the provisions of Chapter 2 of this Title. ARTICLE 1224 A joint indivisible obligation gives rise to indemnity for damages from the time anyone of the debtors does not comply with his undertaking. ARTICLE 1215 Novation, compensation, confusion or remission of the debt, made by any of the solidary creditors or with any of the solidary debtors, shall extinguish the obligation ARTICLE 1218 Payment by a solidary debtor shall not entitle him to reimbursement from his co-debtors if such payment is made after the obligation has prescribed or become illegal. DIVISIBLE AND
OBLIGATIONS ARTICLE 1225 For the purposes of the preceding articles, obligations to give definite things and those which are not susceptible of partial performance shall be deemed to be indivisible. OBLIGATIONS WITH A PENAL CLAUSE ARTICLE 1226 In obligations with a penal clause, the penalty shall substitute the indemnity for damages and the payment of interests in case of noncompliance, if there is no stipulation to the contrary. ARTICLE 1227 •The debtor cannot exempt himself from the performance of the obligation by paying the penalty
•Neither can the creditor demand the fulfillment of the obligation and the satisfaction of the penalty at the same time ARTICLE 1228 Proof of actual damages suffered by the creditor is not necessary in order that the penalty may be demanded ARTICLE 1229 The judge shall equitably reduce the penalty when the principal obligation has been partly or irregularly complied with by the debtor. Even if there has been no performance, the penalty may also be reduced by the courts if it is iniquitous or unconscionable. ARTICLE 1230 The nullity of the penal clause does not carry with it that of the principal obligation.
The nullity of the principal obligation carries with it that of the penal clause. ARTICLE 1231 Obligations are extinguished:1. By payment or performance2. By the loss of the thing due" ARTICLE 1232 Payment means not only the delivery of money but also the performance, in any other manner of an obligation." ARTICLE 1233 A debt shall not be understood to have been paid unless the thing or service in which the obligation consists has been completely delivered or rendered, as the case may be. ARTICLE 1234 If the obligation has been substantially performed in good faith, the obligor may recover as though there had been a strict and complete fulfillment less damages suffered by the obligee ARTICLE 1235 When the obligee accepts the performance, knowing its incompleteness or irregularity, and without expressing any protest or objection, the obligation is deemed fully complied with ARTICLE 1236 The creditor is not bound to accept payment or performance by a third person who has no interest in the fulfillment of the obligation, unless there is a stipulation to the contrary." ARTICLE 1237 Whoever pays on behalf of the debtor without the knowledge or against the will of the latter, cannot compel the creditor to subrogate him in his rights, such as those arising from a mortgage, guaranty or penalty." ARTICLE 1238 Payment made by a third person who does not intend to be reimbursed by the debtor is deemed to be a donation, which requires the debtor's consent. But the payment is in any case valid as to the creditor who has accepted it." ARTICLE 1239 In obligations to give, payment made by one who does not have the free disposal of the thing due and capacity to alienate it shall not be valid, without prejudice to the provisions of Article 1427 under the Title on "Natural Obligations. ARTICLE 1240 Payment shall be made to the person in whose favor the obligation has been constituted, or his successor in interest, or any person authorized to receive it." ARTICLE 1241 Payment to a person who is incapacitated to administer his property shall be valid if he has kept the thing delivered, or insofar as the payment has been beneficial to him ARTICLE 1242 Payment made in good faith to any person in possession of the credit shall release the debtor." ARTICLE 1243 Payment made to the creditor by the debtor after the latter has been judicially ordered to retain the debt shall not be valid." ARTICLE 1244 The debtor of a thing cannot compel the creditor to receive a different one, although the latter may be of the same value as, or more valuable than that which is due."