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States of Matter & Gas Behavior

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by

Leilagh Boyle

on 31 January 2014

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Transcript of States of Matter & Gas Behavior

Solids, Liquids, and Gases
The three states of matter
The states of matter are determined by whether or not they hold their volume and shape.
Solids have a definite volume and a definite shape.
Solids
Liquids do not have a definite shape, but do have a definite volume
Liquids
Gases have no definite shape or volume
Gases
They will keep their volume and shape in any position and in any container
Tightly Packed
Particles within a solid are both...
Why?
Stay in a fixed position
and
Types of Solids
Crystalline Solids
Amorphous Solids
particles form a regular repeating pattern
particles are not arranged in a regular pattern
BUT
They DO move
They vibrate back and forth.
Particles within a solid are not motionless

They have a distinct melting point
Crystalline Solids
particles form a regular repeating pattern
Melting point
- temperature at which a crystalline solid melts and loses its crystalline shape
Examples- sugar, snow, sand, quartz
solid in which particles are not arranged in a regular pattern
Amorphous Solids
Examples - Plastic, rubber, glass, wax, butter
They do NOT have a distinct melting point
As temperature rises, the solid will become softer and softer until it melts
A liquid takes on the shape of whatever container it is in.
Closely packed
Particles within a liquid are...
and
Move freely
(like solids)
(unlike solids)
Viscosity is a liquid's resistance to flow.
Viscosity
More resistance to flow
Less resistance to flow
Higher Viscosity
Lower Viscosity
Which has a higher viscosity?
Volume and shape will expand to fit the container that the gas is in
Move at high speeds in all directions
Particles of Gas...
Spread out to fill whatever space is available
and
The volume of a gas changes easily
Volume of Gas
Gas particles can...
Be compressed
Spread apart
Resulting in
Resulting in
decrease in volume
increase in volume
The volume of a gas is equal to the container it is in
What is the volume of Helium gas compressed in a 500 L tank?
Temperature is the measure of the average energy of motion of the particles in a substance
Temperature
Measured in
Degrees Celsius
Degrees Fahrenheit
Kelvin
As temperature increases
Temperature of Gases:
Charles's Law
Volume increases
As temperature decreases
Volume decreases
Graphing Charles's Law
Directly Proportional
both varibles increase at the same time
Linear
the graph forms forms a line
Moving particles will collide with one another and with the walls of their container.
Pressure
These particles exert a push, or force, on the walls of the container
Pressure
is the force of a gas's outward push divided by the area of the walls of the container
.
Pressure =
Force
Area
Boyle's Law
Gases Under Pressure:
As pressure increases
Volume decreases
As pressure decreases
Volume increases
**This law only applies at a constant temperature
**This law only applies at a constant pressure
Graphing Boyle's Law
Volume
Pressure
Varies Inversely
downward slope from left to right
Non-Linear
does not form a straight line
Temperature and Pressure
Relating...
As temperature increases
Pressure increases
As temperature decreases
Pressure decreases
**This law only applies if the volume remains constant
Higher temperature Particles move faster More collisions Higher Pressure
Graphing Temperature and Pressure
Are temperature and pressure directly proportional or do they vary inversely?
Do temperature and pressure have a linear or non-linear relationship?
Solid, Liquid, or Gas?
How do you know?
1.
2.
3.
Is butter a crystalline solid or an amorphous solid?
Which has a lower viscosity?
Corn Syrup
7- Up
A gas is raised from a temperature of 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C, the pressure ________.
Increase or Decrease?
When the pressure increases from 1 kPa to 2.5 kPa, the volume ________.
Increase or Decrease?
What law is this?
Directly Proportional or Varied Inverseley?
What law is this?
Hint: look at the varibles
Gas doesn't like to be under pressure.
Particles in a gas will escape from their container until pressure is equal inside and outside of its container.
Faster movement -> Higher Energy -> Higher Temperature
There are 300 particles of gas are in a 1 L tank.
There are 300 particles of gas in a 0.5 L tank.
Which has tank has a higher pressure?
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