**MATHEMATICS**

HOW CAN YOU DEVEOP A STUDENT'S MATH FOUNDATION?

Effective Instruction!!

Teach students to be math literate.

Provided sufficient guided and independent practice with math concepts.

Similar acquisition

Explicit instruction

Practice with a group and individually

Guidance

Foundation or basic knowledge is necessary for comprehension and growth

STUDENTS WITH MILD DISABILITIES

Holes in mathematical literacy and understanding

Limited mastery of skills and no support in developing basic concepts

What areas of math can lack support and understanding?

DIFFERENCE.....

The type of difficulty a student experiences when learning mathematics differs from reading and writing difficulties.

HOW IS MATH SIMILAR TO READING AND WRITING?

TEN AREAS OF MATHEMATICS STANDARDS

PROCESS

CONTENT

Numbers and operation

Algebra

Geometry

Measurement

Data Analysis

Problem Solving

Reason and proof

Communication

Connections

Representation

FOUNDATIONAL CONCEPTS AND SKILLS

Number sense

One-to-one correspondence

Relational concepts

Place value

Classification

Counting

BASIC COMPUTATION CONCEPTS AND SKILLS

VOCABULARY FOR COMPUTATION

:

Addition Sum

Subtraction Difference

Multiplication Product

Division Quotient

EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTION

Concrete...Semi-concrete....Abstract

Link concepts and skills

Task Analysis

Conceptual foundations of mathematics

ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Commutative Property

Promote automatic recall

MULTIPLICATION

Counting by

Patterns

Derived facts

"Split-adds"

DIVISION

Division facts

Distributive property

Inverse operation to multiplication

MEMORIZING CALCULATION FACTS

Can reduce errors and improve comprehension

Automaticity

Students with mild disabilities can benefit from drills and practice to improve recall.

USING A CALCULATOR

Can help a students with mild disabilities.

Issues with retaining information in memory

Attention difficulties.

OTHER BASIC SKILLS

Estimation

Rounding to compatible numbers

Front end-estimation

BIG IDEAS!!!

Place value

Associative property

Rate of composition or decomposition

Expanded notation

Distributive property

Commutative property

Equivalence

PROBLEM SOLVING

Students with mild disabilities have been denied participation...

Calculations are embedded

Students with mild disabilities can have difficulty with....

Motivation

Mathematical literacy and embedded literacy tasks

Confound story problems

Complex math tasks

APPROACHES TO MATH INSTRUCTION

PALS

Direct instruction

Explicit instruction

SKILLS THAT BUILD ON NUMERACY AND CALCULATION

Fractions

Learning parts of a whole.

Can develop an understanding of proportions, ratio, and probability.

Students with mild disabilities have difficulty because factions are abstract.

Decimals

Can be easier than factions

Students must be knowledgeable about place value.

HELPFUL TIPS FOR PROBLEM SOLVING

Teach cue words

Make sure students have the appropriate levels of reading literacy

Avoid confound story problems

Be mindful of complex math tasks

MATH CURRICULA

Methodical instruction for teaching specific skills

Order and sequencing in instruction of concepts

Initiate and review prior knowledge and skills

Go beyond the text book

CRITICAL ELEMENTS OF EFFECTIVE CURRICULA

Reteaching

"Big ideas"

Combination of timed drills and learning strategies

Seven Principles of Intensive Instruction

FOR STUDENTS WITH MILD DISABILITIES OR A MATH RELATED DISABILITY

1. Ongoing progress monitoring

2. Drill and practice

3. Instructional explicitness

4. Instructional design to minimize learning challenges

5. Cumulative review

6. Systematic motivation to promote self-regulation and encourage students to work hard

7. conceptual foundation

ABOVE ALL....

MAKE IT MEANINGFUL!!!!!!!!!