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Trends and Issues in Scholarly Communication

Open access, bibliometrics and journal rankings
by

Chris Chan

on 9 October 2014

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Transcript of Trends and Issues in Scholarly Communication

Trends & Issues in Scholarly Communication
Chris Chan
http://about.me/chancp

Christine Ho
http://about.me/christine.ho

Information Services Librarians, HKBU Library
Learning Outcomes
Understand the open access movement, so that you see how the issues involved will impact your academic career
By the end of today's session, you will:
Be able to determine the relative ranking of journals in your disciplinary area, in order to identify high impact publications
Be able to use appropriate Library-subscribed tools to calculate bibliometric information for an author, so that you can determine the relative impact of the output of individual scholars
Open Access
Journal Rankings
Bibliometrics
"Which is the top journal in my discipline?"
Impact Factor
Number of Citations to Recent Articles
Number of Recent Articles
2012 Impact Factor = 31.027
The average article published in 2010 or 2011 was cited about 31 times in 2012
2012 Impact Factor = 3.933
The average article published in 2010 or 2011 was cited about 4 times in 2012
Calculating Impact Factor
Journal Citation Reports

Covers over 10,000 leading journals

Can be searched via the Library's subscription...
JCR focuses heavily on science journals (around 8,000)

Lesser coverage of social sciences (around 2,000) - the Arts and Humanities are not covered at all

JCR is highly selective - many good quality academic journals are NOT included
An alternative - SCImago Journal & Country Rank
Exercise
Use JCR to determine the current top-ranked journal by impact factor in your discipline
Uses SCImago Journal Rank Indicator - similar to Impact Factor

Includes over 20,000 journals - with better coverage of the Arts and Humanities

Freely accessible without a subscription...
Exercise
Use SCImago to determine the current top-ranked journal by impact factor in your discipline

Compare and contrast with the information you found in JCR

Metrics like Impact Factor are just one way to determine the relative importance of journals

Your decisions about what to read and where to publish your own articles should take other factors into account
"What are bibliometrics, and why should I care?"
A quantitative measure of the impact that the work of an individual scholar has had in their field
Citation Counts
h-index
In the previous section we talked about journal impact factor, which is calculated based on citations to individual articles

Something similar can be done for individual authors, by working out the average number of citations their papers receive
Paper X
Cited by 26
A recent measure designed to balance impact and output
Professor A has written 2 papers, both have been cited 10 times
Professor B has written 10 papers, all of which have been cited 2 times
Average no. of cites = 10
Average no. of cites = 2
h = the number of papers (n) by a scholar that have been cited at least n times
Professor A has written 2 papers, both have been cited 10 times
Professor B has written 10 papers, all of which have been cited 2 times
h-index = 2
h-index = 2
Avg. Citation
Example
h-index
Example
Tools for calculating bibliometrics
Web of Science
Scopus
Scholarly Communication Defined
"The system through which research and other scholarly writings are created, evaluated for quality, disseminated to the scholarly community, and preserved for future use. The system includes both formal means of communication, such as publication in peer-reviewed journals, and informal channels..."
- Association of Research Libraries
http://www.arl.org/focus-areas/scholarly-communication
Database that tracks the citation each indexed article has received
Began with the Science Citation Index in 1961
Owned by the same company as Journal Citation Reports - same limited coverage
Can be used to calculate scholarly metrics for individuals
More recently established competitor to Web of Science
SCImago uses Scopus data for journal rankings - Scopus is less selective about the journals that it includes
Offers similar functionality for calculating scholarly metrics for individuals
Exercise
Calculate Prof. Cheah's average number of citations and h-index in Web of Science
Prof. CHEAH Kok Wai
Head and Chair Professor, HKBU Department of Physics
Exercise
Calculate Prof. Cheah's average number of citations and h-index in Scopus
Prof. CHEAH Kok Wai
Head and Chair Professor, HKBU Department of Physics
Altmetrics
Emerging alternatives to traditional bibliometrics
Counts other mentions such as tweets, Facebook posts, Reddits, blog posts, Menedeley saves, etc.
Still in early stages of development
Example from Altmetric.com
The Scholarly Communication Crisis
Serials crisis
Pricing barrier for libraries
Permission barriers
How to create broader access to scholarship?
Publisher consolidation &
Market dominance
The Open Access Movement
“By open access, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software or use them for any other lawful purpose…”

- The Budapest Open Access Initiative – February 14, 2002

OA presents opportunities, new challenges.
But we still need to filter for what is "good".
A graphic view of mergers and acquisitions in the library automation industry
http://www.librarytechnology.org/automationhistory.pl
2003: BertelsmannSpringer (scientific publishers) was sold to investment firms that own Kluwer Academic publishing, merging to become Springer
Annual production: 1,500 journals, 5,000 books
2000: Reed Elsevier acquired Harcourt, publisher of science journals
over 10,000 journals
over 16,000 databases
over 35,000 news and legal sources
The
open access (OA) publishing
movement is the main infrastructure of the OA movement.
Open access publishing: a worldwide effort to
broaden access to published research
and other scholarly writings.
Green open access
Self-archiving, i.e. depositing articles in institutional or subject repository

Green journal publishers allow author self-archiving

Pre-print (pre-refereeing) AND post-print (final draft post-refereeing) OR publisher's version/PDF

Gold Open Access
Publishing in an open access journal
OA journals managed under variety of business (revenue) models
Traditional publisher with OA titles or open access publisher
Open Access Publishers
What does OA mean for researchers?
Better visibility for your scholarship
Faster discovery of scholarship to improve lives
New ways to see who is using your work, and how
Demands to transfer copyrights exclusively to publishers
Authors give up future control to freely share and publicly distribute their research
over 8,000 journals indexed
3,000+ journals are peer-reviewed
Beware predatory OA publishers
scholarlyoa.com
Expenditure trends in ARL Libraries, 1986-2011
http://www.arl.org/storage/documents/expenditure-trends.pdf
Le Corbusier's Human by Chris JL, available under a Creative Commons Attribution, NonCommercial No Derivative Works License 2.0 at http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisjl/5074228159/
Open Access, Bibliometrics and Journal Rankings
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