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Unit 5: The Young State, Mexican War, and Westward Expansion

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Andrew Robia

on 5 February 2015

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Transcript of Unit 5: The Young State, Mexican War, and Westward Expansion

Unit 5: The War with Mexico
and Westward Expansion
As soon as Texas became the 28th state of the United States, it was
immediately at the center of a plan to increase the size
of the United States...
This plan came to be known as
The teacher in this video is going
to explain what Manifest Destiny
So, here's what it means again:

MANIFEST: Clear or Obvious to the eye or mind

DESTINY: Fate, something that is
meant to happen or planned by a Higher Power and is going to happen

Put it all together:
Soon After Texas becomes a state, President James K. Polk sends
General Taylor and troops to Corpus Christi, Texas.
President Polk also sends John Slidell to Mexico to offer to buy Mexico's
northern Territory.
When Texas became
a state, the United
States believed the
border between Texas
and Mexico was the
Rio Grande. Santa Anna
agreed to this in the
that ended the Texas
However, as soon as
Santa Anna is released
by the Texans, he says the border between Texas and Mexico is
the Nueces River.
See the striped area on the map? That is the
Disputed Territory
. Both nations say that land
is theirs. It will be this piece of land that will
be used to start a war between Mexico and the
United States.
England Claimed
the Oregon Country
Native Americans lived
everywhere west of the
Mississippi River
This is a map of the United States
in 1845.

The pink is the U.S.

The other colors are lands the
U.S. wants due to the idea of
Manifest Destiny
Slidell offers to buy California
from Mexico for $25 Million,
but Mexico is offended by
the offer and rejects it. They even refuse to meet with Slidell.
The Battle of Palo Alto was the first battle
of the war. It was fought just north of
Brownsville, Texas. The U.S. had better
cannons and used them to keep the Mexican
forces from being able to attack the U.S. troops.
Mexico lost 250-400 men. The U.S. lost 150.
The Battle of Buena Vista is the bloodiest
battle of the war. General Taylor, after his
victory at Monterrey, agrees to an 8 week
ceasefire with Mexican General Ampudia.
This makes President Polk furious, and he
sends General Winfield Scott to replace
General Taylor.
President Polk orders Taylor's best
soldiers to join General Scott at
Vera Cruz. Taylor is left with 5000
troops who are inexperienced.
Santa Anna marches 20,000 Mexican
soldiers to defeat Taylor and then turn to go after General Scott.
Taylor falls back to the high ground
near Buena Vista. Santa Anna has to
attack up hill. The Mexican troops
begin their attack in the morning and
have broken through by mid day. Taylor's
reserve troops led by Jefferson Davis
hold off the Mexican Cavalry. Taylor
orders a counter attack which slows down
the Mexican Army.
During the battle, Santa Anna
receives a message that a civil
war has broken out in Mexico City.
He needs to bring his army back
to the capital to defend the city.
Santa Anna, angered by the news,
orders his troops to withdraw from
the battle and marches them back
to Mexico City. The U.S. lose 650 men,
the Mexicans lose 3,400.
When Polk learns that Mexico
will not meet Slidell, he orders General Taylor to move south to the Rio Grande, into the disputed territory.
Mexican General Arista orders
his troops to move from Matamoros across the Rio Grande. They surround a small
scouting party of U.S. soldiers and attack them, killing 16 in the skirmish.
General Taylor sends
a letter to President Polk that says, "Hostilities
have commenced."
When Polk receives Taylor's
letter, he immediately declares
that "American blood has been
shed on American soil," and asks Congress to Declare war on
Congress declares war
on May 13, 1846, but the
first battle of the war
occurred on May 8, 1846.
Santa Anna's forces had retreated
all the way back to Mexico City. General Scott's
army was now outside the gates of the capital.
Santa Anna decided to use the high ground
of Chapultepec Castle to try and keep the U.S.
Army out of the city.
Mexican General Nicolas Bravo had 1000 men
to defend the castle but they were not enough.
The U.S. cannons bombarded the castle for
an entire day and began their attack the next
U.S. Captain Robert E. Lee scouted a
route up the side of the mountain
which helped the U.S. soldiers capture
the castle. The last Mexican soldiers
left alive were 6 cadets who refused
to surrender. Legend has it that
the last cadet wrapped himself
in the Mexican Flag and jumped to his
death instead of surrendering to the
Americans. These boy soldiers are
known as "Los Ninos Heroes de Chapultepec."
Los Ninos Heroes de Chapultepec:
Juan de la Barrera (age 19)
Juan Escutia (age 15–19)
Francisco Márquez (age 13)
Agustín Melgar (age 15–19)
Fernando Montes de Oca (age 15–19)
Vicente Suárez (age 14)
With Santa Anna's Army
defeated, the U.S. Army
marches unopposed into
the Mexican Capital.
None of the leaders of
the Mexican government
can be found because
no one wants to be
responsible for giving
Mexico to the United
Since the U.S. Army was in
complete control of all
of Mexico, some people in
the U.S. start pressuring
Polk to annex all of Mexico,
but Polk sticks to his plan
of owning Mexico's northern
Mexico and the U.S. sign the
Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo:

The U.S. gets Mexico's
northern territories in exchange
for $15 million. This land is called
Mexican Cession

The Rio Grande is the official
border between the U.S. and Mexico.

Mexican citizens living in these
areas can become U.S. citizens and
keep their land if they choose.
They had one year
to decide.
September 14, 1848
September 13, 1847
February 23, 1847
May 8, 1846
The End of the War:
The Treaty of
Guadalupe Hidalgo
Many U.S. soldiers who fought
together in Mexico would
find themselves fighting
against each other 15 years
later in the Civil War.
Ulysses S. Grant joined
the infantry in Missouri. He
fought at Palo Alto and Chapultepec.
He goes on to become the
commanding general of the Union
Army during the Civil War.
Robert E. Lee joined the U.S. Army
in Alexandria,Virginia, and distinguished
himself at the battles of Cerro Gordo
and Chapultepec. He becomes the
commanding general of the Confederate
Forces during the Civil War and the only
man ever to be asked to lead both armies
involved in a war.
Jefferson Davis joined
the U.S. Army in Mississippi
and fought valiantly at
the battle of Buena Vista.
Davis becomes the
President of the Confederate
States of America during
the Civil War.
The Legacy of the War with Mexico
California enters the United States
as a free state. Not long after
the war, gold is discovered
and Americans rushed
across the new U.S.
territories to California
in hopes of becoming rich quickly.
Texas tried to hold on
to New Mexico, but the
people of New Mexico
did not want to be part
of Texas, and they did
not want slavery.
In the
Compromise of 1850
Texas gave up its claims to
New Mexico and Colorado in
exchange for $10 Million,
which Texas used to pay
the debts they owed when
they were a Republic.
The unique shape of Texas
was finally settled, and
school kids still can't draw it to this day...
Texas History 2013
Spring Woods MS
Spring Branch ISD
Houston, TX
Mr. Wegener
Mr. Robia
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
was exiled in Cuba. He is askedto come back and lead the Mexican Armies against
the United States.
After the Battle of Palo Alto,
there were 10 more battles
in the War with Mexico. We will
look at three significant battles.
Finally, the United States becomes a land
"from sea to shining sea." 11 years later,
the U.S. will go to war again...this time
with itself.

When James K. Polk became
president in 1845, he promised
to serve for one term. He kept
his promise. However, in those
four years he tripled the size
of the United States. He died
four months later after leaving

With your Partner,
Please answer the
questions for part 1
With your Partner
please answer the
questions for part 2
With your partner,
please answer the
questions for part 3
With your partner,
answer the questions
for part 4
With your partner,
answer the questions
for part 5
With your partner,
answer the questions
for part 6
With your partner,
answer the questions
for part 7, and
Thank you for learning
all about the War with
Mexico and westward

The Germans settled in New Braunfels
in Comal County

The French were more interested in
trade than settlement.
The first french settlement
in Texas was Castroville
Norway Has Christmas

The Czechoslovakian flag
looks like the Texas flag.

In Ireland, people enjoy
clog dancing.

Watch the following Video.
Stop the video when you see
the big Mexican Flag.
Full transcript