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Population and Migration

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Andrew Paulsen

on 17 September 2018

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Transcript of Population and Migration

Population Measurements and Distribution
East Asia- China, Koreas, Japan, and Taiwan
China has a large rural population along Yangtze and Huang He Rivers, while South Korea and Japan has a mostly urban population
South Asia- India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
Region has a large rural population along Indus and Ganges Rivers
Europe- Over 75% of Europeans live in cities and it imports lots of food.
Southeast Asia- Many islands in Indonesia and Philippines have very dense populations
North America- Densest area is in Northeastern U.S.

Distribution: Population Concentrations

Ecumene is portion of world’s surface with permanent settlements.
Near Ocean: 2/3 of world population is within 300 miles of ocean, 4/5 within 500 miles of ocean.
Main population areas are usually low-lying areas with fertile soil and temperate climates.
Humans avoid very dry, cold, wet and high areas.

Distribution: Population Pattern

Looking at the cartogram, which country surprises you? Is there a country you expected to see but didn’t?

Arithmetic density: total number of people divided by the total land area
U.S. has 80 people per square mile, India 350
Physiological density: total # of people divided by unit of arable land
U.S. has 172 people per square arable mile, India 618
Agricultural Density: total number of farmers per arable mile.
This shows wealth and technology of a country.
Geographers compare these numbers to see the capacity of an area to support the people.
Distribution: Population Density

Create a brace map on World’s Population


Crowded cities create needs for more housing, safe drinking water, and other infrastructure and services.
Governments must adjust voting districts based on population counts (census).
Businesses pay attention to populations for customers and transportation decisions.

Why should people study population distribution and density?

& Migration

The Demographic Transition Model
This is a theory about population growth that explains why and how a country’s population grows fast.
The Demographic Transition Model
Stage 1: Low Growth: birth rates and death rates vary year to year but are at high levels over long term. Natural Increase rate is very low.
Much of human history was at this stage.

Stage 1
Stage 2: High growth: The death rate drops while the birth rate remains high, causing rapid growth. Natural Increase rate jumps.

Starting c. 1750 AD, Industrial Revolution in Europe and N. America created wealth and abundant food supply, which led to healthier cities.
After World War II, medical revolution diffuses to Latin America, Africa and Asia, lowering death rate.

Stage 2
Stage 3: Moderate growth: Death rate continues to drop, but birth rate drops faster. Natural Increase slows.
Families have fewer children because of lower death rates and urban lifestyles.
N. America and Europe entered stage 3 in early 1900s; much of Asia and Latin America are there now.
Stage 3
Stage 4: Low Growth: The birth rate and death rate are both low and about equal, making Natural Increase Rate almost 0.
Many try to reach zero population growth (stationary population level).
Japan and most of Europe has reached stage 4.
Stage 4


Identify the stage for each graph.
Population Theories and Policies
Thomas Malthus in An Essay on the Principle of Population in 1798, argued that the world’s population will grow past Earth’s food supply.
Neo-Malthusians agree, but modified Malthus’ arguments in two ways:
Poor countries have the highest population growth, causing greater concern.
Food is not the only concern, but energy and other resources.
Malthus Theories on Population

Marxist Friedrich Engels argued unjust social and business institutions starve people, not a lack of resources.
Much of Malthus’ predictions have been wrong: population growth slowed and food supply increased more than he expected.
Resources can expand with technology.
Malthus’ Critics

This is a cartogram on birth rates. What areas of the world need to slow down birth rates? Speed Up?

Expansive policies: gov’ts encourage population growth.
Most common in aging countries.
Russia offers $10,000 to women having more than 1 child.
Restrictive Population Policies: gov’ts try to slow down population growth.
India had sterilization clinics in the 1970s, now uses incentives.
Eugenic Population policies: gov’ts favor one race or ethnic group over others.
Involuntary sterilization of African Americans occurred in the early 1900s
Population Policies
Create a tree map of the 3 types of population policies. Write examples down too.
Health Issues
Mortality rates: deaths per thousands
Infant mortality rates (IMR): 0-1
Child mortality rates (CMR): 1-5
Life expectancy: number of years on average people live in a country.
Low life expectancy usually goes with high infant and child mortality rates.
Measures of Health
Infectious diseases: disease resulting from some germ or parasite.
Vectored diseases spread by an insect or animal- called a vector (Malaria, Bird flu).
Nonvectored diseases spread by human contact (AIDS, Influenza, TB)
Chronic (degenerative) diseases: illness from old age (heart attacks)
Genetic (inherited) diseases: conditions that people inherit.
Type of Diseases
Analyze the distribution (clusters, density, pattern) of cholera in London.
Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and spread of diseases.
Stage 1: most common are pestilence and famine: Black plague was most famous
Stage 2: most common are pandemics in cities: Cholera was most famous
Stage 3: most common are degenerative diseases: heart illness and cancer
Stage 4: delayed degenerative diseases: modern medicine reduces the chronic diseases impact
Predicted Stage 5: reemergence of infectious diseases: AIDS is the most famous
Demographic Transition and Diseases
Create a tree map for the types of diseases with examples for each.
Cyclic Movement is when we leave home and come back in a short period of time.
Seasonal movement, nomadism
Periodic Movement is when we leave home and come back after a long period of time.
Migrant labor, transhumance (pastoral farming according to elevation/seasons)
College students and military service.
Cyclic and Periodic Movement
Involuntary or forced migration is when people have to move because of gov’t or other power
Ex.- African slave trade, Britain sending prisoners to Australia, Native Americans being forced to reservations
Voluntary Migration is when people choose to move.
Internal Migration is when people move inside a country.
International Migration is when people move to another country.
Types of Migration
Ernst Ravenstein came up with laws of migration in the late 1800s.
Most migrants only proceed a short distance, and toward centers of absorption (cities).
Each main current of migration produces a compensating counter-current (people go back home).
Migrants going long distances generally go to one of the great centers of commerce (business) or industry (cities).
The natives of towns are less migratory than those of the rural parts of the country.
Economic reasons are main causes of migration.
Laws of Migration
Gravity Model based on Ravenstein’s Laws of Migration.
Closer places have stronger pull.
Larger populations have stronger pull.
Spatial Interaction between source areas (where they’re from) and destinations (where they’re going) are a combo of distance and population size.
Gravity Model
Create a tree map that categorizes the types of migration.

Movements and Migrations
Many people are pushed out of areas because of lack of jobs, resources, taxes or gov’t regulation.
Many people are attracted to new areas for jobs/opportunities.
This is main reason for immigration to U.S.
This is also the main reason for voluntary migration.
Economic Push and Pull Factors

Cultural push factors of war, instability or persecution.
Cultural Pull factor is freedom.
Cultural biases in areas can push or pull migrants.
U.S. recruits Mexicans in certain jobs since they are seen as hard-working & loyal.
Some groups move to preserve their culture, feeling threatened by changes in their area.
Cultural Push and Pull Factors

Mild climates and scenery can be pull factors, usually voluntary.
Americans moved to Sunbelt for warmer weather.
Harsh climates and natural hazards are push factors.
Africans left Sahel (N. Africa) due to drought.
Environmental Push and Pull Factors
Create a tree map for the main categories of push and pull factors with examples.

How does this poem show economic pull factors?
Causes of Migrations
Major Migration Patterns
In history, global migration has been driven by Europeans during Colonization and Imperialism.
Europeans left to colonize North, South and Middle Americas
Colonization and slavery brought millions of Africans to Americas
British and Irish colonized Africa and Australia
British used India for labor in Eastern Africa, S.E. Asia and the Caribbean
European population grew rapidly after industrialization in 1800s (stage 2) and sent many immigrants to other countries, mainly America.
Recently, Asia, Africa and Latin America have net out-migration because of Stage 2 while North America, Europe and Oceania have net in-migration because of wealth and stage 4.
Now, 3 biggest flows are: Asia to Europe, Asia to North America, Latin America to North America
Historic Global Migration Patterns

Draw a diagram/picture showing how stage 2 of the Demographic transition tends to create immigrants.
1700s-1840: Colonization w/ Africans (slaves) and British
1840s-50s: Northern and Western Europe (Irish from famine, Germans from war)
1870s-80s: Northern and Western Europe (Irish, Germans and Scandinavians)
Early 1900s: Southern (Italy) and Eastern Europe (Russia and Austro-Hungary)
1960s-1990s- Asia and Latin America
Global Migration to U.S.

This is when people move from one region in a country to another region.
U.S. has had a general pattern of moving west, filling in the Great Plains and then south (sunbelt migration).
Former Soviet Union forced people to move to Siberia from the west to develop resources
China has had 100 million people move from rural interior to coastal cities.
Brazil encouraged migration by building a new capital, Brazilia, in the interior.
Interregional Migration

This is when people move inside the same region.
Rural to urban migration is most common.
Urban to suburban migration is common in more developed countries.
Urban to rural migration is a small new trend in wealth countries (counterurbanization).
Intraregional Migrations
Create a flow map of global migration to the U.S.
Selective Immigration
Quotas are a number limit.
Since 1921 the U.S. has had quota laws (limit) for immigration, originally designed to favor Europeans.
At first there were quotas for individual countries, then by hemisphere, and now it is just a total number (700,000)
Refugees and relatives of citizens don’t count.
Quota Laws
Guest Workers
Immigrants who are allowed to come for temporary work are called guest workers.
These used to be called time-contract workers in the 1800s: work for a specific time and then leave, but many ended up staying.
Western Europe and the Middle East use these policies often.
Current Issues
Brain drain: many poor countries lose their smartest and most talented people to U.S. and Europe.
U.S. has often been discriminatory towards immigrants.
Europe does little to help guest workers since they’re seen as temporary.
In both areas, laws recently have been passed to make it more difficult for immigrants to get jobs and social services.
In both areas, immigrants have rioted out of frustration.
What changes would you make to our quota laws?
Make a double bubble map comparing Guest Worker to Quota laws.
Demographic Push and Pull Factors
Open space and room to grow and potential mates can be demographic pull factors.
Overcrowding and unbalanced sex ratios can be push factors.
Many people left Europe due to crowding to come to America's open space.
Political Push and Pull Factors
Democratic and stable governments tend to be pull factors.
Political persecution and repressive governments are push factors.
Many people left Communist Cuba to reach democratic U.S.
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