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Stem Cells

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by

Seb Liu

on 23 February 2017

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Transcript of Stem Cells

Cells From Bone Marrow:

Stem cells are 10 to 100 times more ubiquitous in bone marrow than in the blood around it. The hip bones contain the highest amount of marrow in the body and large numbers of stem cells. The person who is being harvested from will be given a spinal or general anesthetic. A doctor makes several small punctures in the skin over the pelvic bone. A syringe is inserted through these punctures and into the bone marrow. The doctor draws marrow and blood out of the bone with a syringe. This process is repeated until a sufficient amount of stem cells are collected for the transplant. The cells collected are then filtered to remove bone fragments and fat molecules.

Embryonic Stem(ES) Cells:
Umbilical Stem Cells:
Blood is collected from the umbilical cord shortly after a baby is born. The volume of stem cells collected per donation is quite small, so these cells are usually used for children or small adults.
A machine separates and collects stem cells from the cord blood.
The stem cells are frozen and stored by cord blood banks or programs until they are needed.
- (2001-2007) Continual research on creation of cardiovascular related stem cells
- making new heart muscle
- making heart cells from fats
- making heart cells from skin
- (2013) Patches for damaged heart cells
- bacteria-derived polymers can be used in the human body
- try to patch them onto damaged parts of heart muscle
- (2016) Blood cells
- scaling up generation of red blood cells from stem cells
- can make limitless supply of clean blood for transfusion
-can help blood loss from injuries or surgery
Discoveries
- (1989) First "Knockout" Mouse, bred to lack specific genes
- Helps to find out which genes are linked to different diseases
- Mouse develops a specific disease similar to humans when a gene is removed
- Helps scientists learn about how diseases develop
- (1998) Embryonic stem cells
- Understanding of stem cells began with this
- uses blastocyst
- James Alexander Thompson and his team grew first embryonic stem cells in lab dish, allowing scientists to learn how the cells functioned

Introduction
Methods
Results
Stem Cells
By: Valerie C, Alex O, Sebastian L, Ambika S,
Stem cell research is research on unspecialized cells to find ways to repurpose them for human benefit.
Stems cells are cells that are unspecialized cells and can be induced to create new tissue.
Currently researchers focus on embryonic cells and somatic cells to advance their research. They are currently focused on implementing the cells to fix blood disorders and immune diseases.
Stem cell research is important because of the uniqueness of stem cells. Since they are the cells that “stem” into the multitude of different types of cells they have the capability to lead to extremely impactful discoveries. Already some cells, such as bone marrow, muscles, and brain cells, utilize this to replace tissues that experience a great deal of wear and tear, this type of cell regeneration is what researchers aspire to utilize.
There is the potential for them to be utilized to treat heart disease and diabetes.

Pros and Cons
Cons

Human:
Mouse:
Scientists have made stem cells from the inner cell masses of human embryos by employing a similar technique to that used to isolate mouse ES cells. It is not allowed to inject human cells back into blastocysts (A thin-walled hollow structure in early embryonic development that contains a cluster of cells called the inner cell mass from which the embryo arises), but these cells can be differentiated in the laboratory to make many different specialized cell types. By using human ES cells to produce specialized cells like nerve cells or heart cells in the lab, scientists can gain access to adult human cells without taking tissue from patients.

Mouse ES cells can be put back into a mouse blastocyst and this blastocyst can then be returned to the uterus of a female mouse to develop into a fetus. The injected ES cells take part in the development of the fetus and the resulting pup is born with a mixture of cells from the host blastocyst and cells that came from the injected ES cells. These new mice with cells from two different places are known as chimeras. Chimeras can pass on genes from embryonic stem cells to their offspring. Researchers can precisely alter the genes of ES cells in the lab, put the cells back into blastocysts, and produce new mice that contain the modified genes. Scientists use the altered mice made from ES cells to study many different human diseases. For example, they have made mice with mutations found in human cancers. These mice can be studied to learn more about how cancers grow and to test potential medicines to cure cancer.

















Pro
Stem cell research can prove extremely beneficial in treating a variety of medical problems, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries and diabetes. It may also prove helpful in finding a treatment for birth defects and heart diseases. It may also help reduce risk of transplantation and provide better knowledge to replace damaged organs.
The public should support this research because everyone has family with an illness or birth defect or memory lost etc....
Group Opinion
The backfire behind stem cell research is it inhumane in some aspects. It takes embryos to make these stem cells. It takes life away before giving it a chance to grow. There are also beliefs by some scientist that Stem Cell research can lead to mega humans or even human cloning. If this is the case it can lead to wars because everyone will be wanting this ability. Also there are cases of embryonic stem cell transplant failure leading to tumor growth.
We support this type of research because of the possible multitude of application it can have as research continues. If the technology improves the applications of stem cells could really revolutionize medical treatment.
Though there is a lot of negative stigma around the use of embryos as it is destroying human life, it may be necessary for the advancement of the technology. Additionally, it is questionable whether or not it should be considered a human life when it is just an embryo.


Bibliography:
Foundation, British Heart. "Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Research." 10 Breakthroughs in Stem Cell Research. British Heart Foundation, n.d. Web. 22 Feb. 2017.
“Stem Cells.” MedlinePlus, medlineplus.gov/stemcells.html. Accessed 22 Feb. 2017.
“What Are Stem Cells?” Medical News Today, MediLexicon International, www.medicalnewstoday.com/info/stem_cell. Accessed 22 Feb. 2017.
“What Is a Stem Cell?” Canadian Stem Cell Foundation, stemcellfoundation.ca/en/about-stem-cells/what-is-a-stem-cell/. Accessed 22 Feb. 2017.
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