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Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives in Motor Development & Ch. 3: Motion & Stability in Motor Development

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Mark Romanowski

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives in Motor Development & Ch. 3: Motion & Stability in Motor Development

Chapter 2:

Theoretical Perspectives
in
Motor Development

How can we describe the development of different people so that we can we explain them and predict future development?
Often take root in the theories of psychology, embryology, and biology.
Maturational Perspective
Explains developmental change as a function of maturational processes that control or dictate movement.
Maturational Perspective
Genetics and heredity are primarily responsible for motor development and environment has little effect.
Driven by a biological or genetic time clock, environment can speed or slow the change process but cannot change one’s biologically determined course.


Arnold Gessel & Myrtle McGraw
Gessel:

Biological and evolutionary history of humans determined their orderly and invariable sequence of development
McGraw:
Maturation of the central nervous system to be the trigger for the appearance of new skills
Normative Descriptive
Period
Quantitative scores on motor performance tests
Running speed, jumping height, and throwing distance at specific ages
Focused on products rather than processes!

Biomechanical Descriptive Period
Observation of children (jumping)
Able to identify the course of sequential improvement that children followed in attaining biomechanically efficient movement patterns
Provided information on age-related changes in motor development
Motor development became labeled as descriptive

Information Processing
Perspective
Brain acts like a computer, taking in information, processing it, and then outputting movement
Movement result of some external, environmental input
Formulation of stimulus, feedback, and knowledge of results
Studied young adults first, then compared to children and older adults
Ecological Perspective
Interrelationships between the individual, environment, and the task
Must consider the interaction of ALL constraints in order to understand the emergence of a motor skill

Two Branches of Ecological Perspective
Motor control and coordination (Dynamical Systems)
Perception (Action)
Many constraints change over time, thus influencing motor development
Motor development considered lifespan process

Dynamical Systems
Organization of physical and chemical systems constrains behavior
Your body’s structures remove some of the movement choices your CNS might have to make
Rate limiters
: Individual constraint or system that holds back or slows the emergence of a motor skill
Discourages the motor skill until the system reaches a specific, critical level

Perception-Action

Cannot study the individual without ignoring the surrounding environment
Perceive environment by moving eyes, heads, and bodies
Affordance:
Relationship between the individual and environment is so intertwined that one’s characteristics defined objects meanings
Implies that people access environmental properties in relation to themselves, not according to an objective standard
Body Scaling
An object affords a function relative to the size and shape of the person using it
An activity may become easier or more difficult if the equipment size is changed relative to a person’s body dimensions
Individual and task constraints
Manipulate interaction between the individual and task constraints to encourage a more advanced movement pattern

How can a physical educator use the concept of body scaling to help individuals develop motor skills?
Chapter 3:
Principles of
Motion &
Stability

Remember, humans change patterns of motor behavior in a somewhat predictable fashion
Humans operate under a system of rules that dictate how constraints interact within the context of life (gravity)
Often try to optimize one aspect of movement at the expense of another to increase the likelihood of success.
Process of change involves mastering the principles of motion and stability

Understanding the principles
Certain physical laws of motion bound or limit your movements
Gravity:
People must collaborate their movements based on their individual constraints (overall body mass and strength), acting in an environment governed by specific task rules
Encourages certain motor behaviors while eliminating others

Understanding the principles
At the same time, individual constraints or characteristics of the performer influence the movement pattern undertaken
Muscles, nervous system, task goal in mind
To develop skills, children must learn to use movement patterns that optimize performance
Changing bodies means changing individual constraints
Other movement patterns become possible that allow them to execute skills with greater proficiency

Moving Against Gravity:
The Application of
Force
To move, individuals must produce force

Newton's First Law
of Motion
An object at rest stays at rest, or an object in motion stays in motion, until acted on by a force.
Newton's Second Law
of Motion
The acceleration of a person or object is proportional to the force applied to it and inversely proportional to its mass
Use these laws to understand how to maximize performance:
You can improve your performance by applying force over a greater distance
You can improve performance by increasing the range of body motion
To improve movement, individuals must find optimal relationship between force and distance in given movement

Imaging you’re an educator and throw a ball without using a step. What are differences you find in the quantitative measures? What are the differences you find in the movement form?
Newton's Third Law of
Motion
For every force you exert on an object, the object exerts an equal force back on you, in the opposite direction.
Any forces that are applied outside of the plane of motion will lead to undesired reaction forces.

The Relationship Between Rotating Limbs and Projected
Objects
An object's linear velocity is the product of its rotational velocity and its radius of rotation
Individuals can increase the velocity of an object they project (throw, kick, hit) by extending the rotating limb as much as possible at the point of release

Besides baseball, can you think of any other sports or situations in which athletes extend their limbs to increase the velocity of a projected object?
Open Kinetic Chain
A maximal ballistic effort must involve not only more body parts but also sequential movement of those parts.
Open kinetic chain
: Must be timed so force can be applied to each succeeding movement
Two essential open kinetic chain movements
1. There does exist an optimal sequence of movements
2. Timing of events within this sequence (step and throw)

Force Absorption
To decrease the impact of a reaction force:
Increase the amount of time in which the impact occurs
Increase the area over which the impact occurs
Stability & Balance
Stable object or person is one that resists movements
Balance:
Relates to ability of an object or person to maintain equilibrium
In most cases, increasing stability ensures balance. However, maintaining balance doesn’t guarantee stability
WHY???
Center of Gravity
Concentration point of earth’s gravitational pull on an individual
Center of Gravity:
Concentration point of earth’s gravitational pull on an individual
People learning new skills will often attempt to improve balance increasing their stability
Increase base of support by avoiding excessive trunk rotation or limb movement

Detecting Errors
Five Step Process:
1. Observe the complete skill
2. Analyze each phase and its key elements
3. Use your knowledge of mechanics in your analysis
4. Select errors to be corrected
5. Decide on appropriate methods for the correction of errors

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