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(28) African Kingdoms

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by

Mrs. Aiello

on 8 September 2017

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Transcript of (28) African Kingdoms

African Kingdoms
Period 2 E Grudge Ball Groups
A B C D E
Samia
Chandler
Clay
Sam S.
Jasmine
Leah
Desiree
Miranda
Katelyn
Bradley
Nick
Palmer
Anna
Grace
Ryan
Zach
Maddie
Sam G.
Jeffery
Matthew
Tyler
Drew
Victoria
Sarah
Truitt
Garrett
Hannah
Kimberly
BJ
Bonny
Period 4 E Grudge Ball Groups
A B C D E
Andrew
Bethany
Nicole
JT
Kevin
Bradley
Riley
Caitlin
Sridevi
Andy
Julia
Mary
Christian
Kellan
Sterling
Margaret
Ryan
Rohit
Kyle
Casey
Addie
Heidi
4,600 miles
Savanna
Sahara Desert
5,000 miles
Kalahari Desert
Rain Forests
Great Rift Valley
Geography of Africa
Because of the
complex geography of Africa, the people of Africa struggled to establish settlements
Prior to the settlement of African civilizations, the people survived in
hunter gatherer societies to support themselves
They would use the land to
develop farming practices and agriculture
Early Africans migrated
(physical movement by humans from one area to another) in search of favorable land and resources before they settled
Characteristics of Africa
Africa is home to
diverse ecosystems
, from sandy deserts to lush rain forests.
Africa, the
second-largest continent
, is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean.
It is divided in half almost equally by the Equator
.
Has both the longest river in the world (Nile) and largest desert (Sahara)
Africa has
eight major physical regions: the Sahara, the Sahel, the Ethiopian Highlands, the savanna, the Swahili Coast, the rain forest, the African Great Lakes, and Southern Africa.
Characteristics of Africa
continued...
Most living in farming villages and clans (matriarchal and patriarchal)
Originally few societies had written languages
History passed through oral tradition (griots- story tellers)
Used iron tools
Animism*- main religion in Africa. Animism is the belief that all things have a spirit or soul, including animals, plants, rivers, mountains, stars, the moon, and the sun.
The Bantu Migration
The Bantu-speaking people was a large group of people
not just one person or small group
Bantu migration was a
millennia-long series of migrations
(over 4,00 years) of speakers of the original
Bantu language group
Group originated in modern day southeastern
Nigeria and migrated as far as the Kalahari Desert
One of the
largest migrations in human history
Helped
spread iron-working and new farming techniques and the Bantu language
throughout the continent
Push/ Pull Factors
Effects of Migration
Changes in population density
CULTURAL DIFFUSION

Shared technologies
Improved quality of life
Clashes between groups...
Environmental changes
Change in employment opportunities
East Africa
East African societies participated in the
Indian Ocean trade network
and was shaped by cultural diffusion
Major East African Empire was Aksum or Axum located in present day Ethiopia
Askum
participated in trade with Persia, India, Arabia & Rome
Askum was also a CHRISTIAN empire
thanks to missionaries and cultural diffusion
Islam was also spread throughout the eastern region of Africa through Arab merchants
African & Arab cultures mixed and led to a new Swahili Language
West Africa
West Africa was shaped by the trans-Saharan Trade Network
West Africa
had large
deposits of GOLD
but lacked salt
North Africa had large deposits of SALT
The Gold- trade connected North and West Africa for trading
Islam was introduced through both trading networks
through muslim merchants and converted many Africans
Mansa Musa
Mansa Musa was king of the Mali Empire in West Africa
He divided his large empire into provinces
The Mali Empire was wealthy
and benefited from trade and travelers from all over the world
Mansa Musa established
religious freedom. Education was free
and encouraged. He even
established a university.
He converted to Islam and made the pilgramige to Mecca
On his way back he paid all those who helped in hundreds of lbs of gold
Ghana Empire 1000
First Major West African Empire
Benefited from the Gold-Salt Trade
Ghana became an empire by taxing merchants, building a large army and conquering surrounding peoples
Ghana Kings served as religious leaders, judges and generals
Overthrew the Ghana Empire
Mali Empire's first king was Sundiata
Sundiata established efficient gov't and promoted farming
Mansa Musa followed Sundiata and converted to Islam and built mosques
Major city that centered the University and was the heart of the Mali Empire was called Timbuktu
Mali Empire 1400
Mali Mosque
Songhai Empire 1500
Sundiata Lion King
After Mansa Musa, Mali declined & was replaced by Songhai
Kings regained control of trade cities along the gold-salt routes
Songhai grew into the largest West African Empire and ended in 1591
Full transcript