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civil rights


Leigh Humphrey

on 5 April 2010

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Transcript of civil rights

13th amendment: made slavery illegal in the US
Jan. 31, 1865 (proposed); ratified Dec. 18, 1865 1865 Freedman's bureau: provided relief for all poor people in the South, but was geared to helping former slaves 14th amendment: due process
(proposed); ratified July 28, 1868 15th amendment: gave African American men the right to vote
Feb. 1869 (proposed); ratified March 1870 Civil Rights Act of 1875: guaranteed blacks equal rights in public places like theaters & public transportation
(later declared unconstitutional) 1881 Tuskegee Institute: founded by
Booker T. Washington Late 1890s Ida B. Wells: journalist who reported on lynchings A Red Record Plessy v. ferguson: 1896--segregation ok if "separate but equal facilities were provided for blacks. NAACP: 1901 W.E.B. DuBois
founded this organization with
others to fight discrimination
and segregation NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) in 1909 by W.E. B. DuBois & others UNIA (Universal Negro Improvement Association) founded by Marcus Garvey in 1914 1920s Harlem REnaissance: An important period of African American artistic growth 1946 Committee on Civil Rights--lead Truman to end segregation in the military and ban racial discrimination in the hiring of federal employees 1950 Sweatt v. Painter: law schools must admit
black applicants who qualify even if a black law school exists. 1954 Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, KS:
racial segregation was declared unconstitutional 1957 Little Rock, AR: 9 black students to integrate Central HS Governor (Faubus) used state troops to keep a federal law from being carried out; Eisenhower sent in 101st Airbourne to protect students. Ernest Green was 1st black to graduate from Central HS 1957 SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference) founded by Martin Luther KIng, JR. to coordinate non-violent protest against racial discrimination Dec. 1, 1955 Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give her seat on the bus to a white passenger. This set off the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Feb. 1, 1960 !st sit-in to gain national attention (by 4 A & T students in Greensboro, NC. SNCC (Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee) founded in Raleigh, NC to organize peaceful civil rights protests by mainly college students. 1961 CORE (Congress of Racial Equality) began a series of Freedom Rides to protest segregation on buses and in Southern bus stations 1962 James Meredith becomes the 1st African American to attend the all white University of Mississippi (Ole Miss). 1963 "Letter from Birmingham Jail" was written by MLK Jr. to outline the racial discrimination in the South. He was jailed with others for protests in which fire hoses and dogs were used to subdue the protesters. 1963 Medgar Evers NAACP field secretary who was assassinated in his own driveway in Jackson, Ms. Murderer Byron De La Beckwith was finally convicted in 1994. Aug. 28, 1968 March on Washington when MLK Jr. delivered his "I Have a Dream" speech. 250,000 people attended. 1963 Bombing at the 16th Street Baptist Church where 4 little girls were killed in Birmingham, AL. Civil Rights Act of 1964: banned segregation in public places such as restaurants and transportation; also prohibited discrimination by employers, unions, or universities with federal government contracts on the basis of race, gender, religion, or national origin. 1964: Freedom Summer where white college students traveled to MS to help blacks register to vote. Aug. 5, 1964: 3 Civil Rights workers (James Chaney who was black, Andrew Goodman & Michael Schwerner who were white) were found murdered. In Mississippi to help get African Americans registered to vote. Feb. 21, 1965 Assassination of Malcolm X by members of the Nation of Islam, the group for which he was the main spokesman. 1965 March from Selma to Montgomery, AL for voter registration. Organized by MLK Jr. April 4, 1968 Assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. by James Earl Ray on the balcony of a Memphis, TN hotel. Riots occurred in many large cities. Voting Rights Act of 1965: gave federal government the power to inspect voter registration procedures and protect all citizens' voting rights. (eliminated: literacy tests, poll taxes, and Grandfather clauses) Civil Rights Act of 1968: prohibits discrimination in the sale, rental and financing of housing.
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