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Transcript of King Tutankhamen
The Valley of the Kings
Interesting Facts on King Tutankhamen
The Ancient Egypt
What are in the tombs?
Geologists are able to learn a lot from what comes out of the tombs from the Valley of the Kings and other places as they hold many artifacts, writings and drawings.
The Great Discovery by Howard Carter
Why did Egyptions build those massive tombs?
That would be because they believed in After-life and eternity.
Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
The New Kingdom of Egypt is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century, B.C. and the 11th century, B.C., covering the 18th, 19th and 20th Dynasties of Egypt.
Mummification- The 7 steps to Immortality
Table Of Contents
1. King Tut
2. King Tut's Family
3. The Great Discovery
4. King Tut's Tomb
5. King Tut's Reign
6. The Valley of the Kings
8. New Kingdom Pharaohs
9. Believed Egyptian After-life
10. King Tut's Death
Egyptologists predict that this is how King Tut looked like when he was alive based on his mummy figure.
King Tut's Family
The King Tut's family are some of the most famous characters in Ancient Egyptian history. Their lives are surrounded with chaotic and mysterious changes in Egypt. The life of family of King Tut is full with murders and mysteries.
King Tut's believed father, Akhenaten started a religious revolution where he forced all the Egyptians to stop worshipping many gods of Egypt and believe in only one god, Aten. Also, he moved the Egyptian capital to Armana where he tried to rebuild the country. Many Egyptians were upset.
Nefertiti was King Tut's step-mother who fully supported her husband, Akhenaten. She disappeared at the end of the reign of Akhenaten.
Ankhesenpaaten, King Tut's half sister was his wife. After the unexpected death of Tutankhamen, she was told to marry her grandfather, Ay, as there wasn't a male heir. It is unknown how she died.
Even though little is known about King Tut, it is known that he became a pharaoh at an early age, about when he was eight or nine years old. During the time he became the pharaoh, Egypt was in turmoil because of his father's religious movement. Tutakhamen was left with an angry and chaotic Egypt to rule.
King Tutankhamen accomplished little in his life. He did not expand Egyptian borders or enjoyed great victories like many pharaohs before him did. However, he is the most recognized and probably the most famous pharaoh today.
The birth name of Tutankhamun was Tutankhaton, which meant “Living Image of the Aten.” His father is believed to be Akhenaten and his mother remains a mystery but she is believed to be a noblewomen named Kiya.
Why is King Tutankhamen so famous?
King Tut's Tomb
King Tut's Tomb
King Tut's Death
Step One: Purification
First, the body was washed with wine and spices along with water from the Nile by professional embalmers. After the body had been washed, all of the parts that might decay were removed. The brain was moved with a hook through the nose. Then they cut open the left side of the body and removed the liver, lungs, stomach and intestines. The heart is not removed because it was believed to be the centre of intelligence and feeling: the dead will need this in the afterlife!
Step Two: Dehydration
Then, the body was stuffed wtih salt called natron, which they also used to completely cover the body. It was then placed on a slanted couch so that any fluids that dripped out as the body was drying could be collected and buried along with it. Any rags used during this process was buried with the body.
Step Three: Organic Treatment
While the body was drying, the removed internal organs were also washed and packed in natron, before being wrapped in linen. Then they were stuffed back into the body, in the jars, to symbolically protect the internal organs on their journey to the afterlife.
Step Four: Cleansing
After forty days the body, now completely dry and shrunken, was washed with water from the Nile. Oil and fragrant spices were then added both inside and out to keep the skin soft and elastic.
Step Five: Restoring
The fifth stage was to restore the body to as lifelike state as possible. It was stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves to fill the cavity and make the preserved corpse regain the shape it had in life.Once the body was stuffed and treated, it could be covered with fine jewellery such as necklaces, rings and bracelets made of gold and gems.
A mummy is a body that has been well preserved for thousands of years. The process was long and tedious but it was essential for Egyptians as it meant an existence in the afterlife. The embalmers ensured that their mummies were carefully anointed, wrapped, and packaged untill they were carried to their tombs and laid to rest.
Step Six: Wrapping
The entire body was then covered with shrouds and bound with strips of linen in a complicated procedure that could take as long as a week. The head and neck were wrapped first, followed by the fingers and the toes, then the arms and legs were wrapped separately. The arms and legs were then tied together, and a papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead was placed between the wrapped hands. Between each layer of wrapping the embalmers placed amulets to protect the body in its journey through the underworld. Once this had been done, a cloth was wrapped around the entire body with a picture of the god Osiris painted on its surface. Then another large cloth was wrapped around the entire mummy.
Step Seven: Funeral Rites
After the wrapping was finished, the head of the mummy was covered with a portrait mask to make sure that the spirit would recognize it. The masked mummy was then placed in a series of gilded wooden coffins. Then the coffin was placed into a sarcophagus in the tomb.
Mummification was a highly skilled and dedicated process because the dead had to be well prepared for their journey through the underworld. To enter your afterlife, you had to have a light heart. Light hearts were earned from a lifetime of doing good deeds.
King Tut's Reign
King Tut's name in Hieroglyphics
Believed Egyptian After-life
Sometime during his tenth year of reigning, Egypt was at the war with the Hittites. During this battle, Pharoh Tutankhamen suddenly died. How he died remains a mystery; however, it’s believed he was murdered. King Tut died at around eighteen or nineteen years old.
King Tut did not leave a male heir to the throne and two daughter he had were buried with him when he died (stillborn).
The Ancient Egyptians believed that as long as a pharaoh's name was remembered, the king would live on through eternity. King Tut was a minor King. He died when he was only nineteen years old. But the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun and its fabulous wealth has made King Tut one of the most famous Pharaohs. The discovery of the tomb of King Tut has ensured that Pharaoh Tutankhamun will never be forgotten.
On November 4th, 1922, Howard Carter found King Tutankhamen's tomb after his five years of research in the Valley of the Kings. He was progressing on his final season when he made the discovery. While clearing away some ancient huts, he found a hidden step near the base of the tomb of Rameses VI. Carter had discovered not just an unknown ancient Egyptian tomb, but one that had lain nearly undisturbed for over three-thousand years. What lay within astounded the world.
Though several of the foremost excavators over the past century had declared there was nothing left to find in the Valley of the Kings, Howard Carter and his sponsor, Lord Carnarvon, spent a number of years and a lot of money searching for a tomb they weren't sure existed.
The discovery of King Tut's tomb in November 1922 created an obsession around the world. Daily updates of the find were demanded. Hundreds of tourists waited outside the tomb for a peek. Ancient Egyptian style clothes quickly hit the markets and appeared in fashion magazines. Even architecture was affected when Egyptian designs were copied into modern buildings.
Lord Carnarvon became suddenly ill from an infected mosquito bite on his cheek. On April 5, 1923, within a week of the bite, Lord Carnarvon died. Just as quickly, newspapers were filled with the "news" of a curse.
It took almost ten years to finish excavating the tomb. Howard Carter passed away in 1939 before being able to finish his written work on magnificent discovery, the King Tut's tomb.
The reason he died is not exact but he was probably murdered by a person who didn't like his power. But he just might have died because of his bad health. There were many canes found in his tomb and there was a fracture found in his leg bone.
When he died, his wife, Ankhesenpaaten was forced to marry her grandfather, Ay who became the next pharaoh. It is believed that Ay's reign was short. Ankhesenpaaten disappeared when Ay died.
It has often been said that King Tut’s tomb was finished at the last minute or meant for someone else due to the size of the tomb and the minimal wall paintings within the inside structure. The lack of construction for this particular tomb in comparison to other pharaohs still leaves many unanswered questions.
The labor force, containing skilled artisans and builders, had to be astronomical and most probably worked very hard every day to create and complete these grand structures. It also took an abundant amount of Egypt’s wealth to get these artifacts finished.
Some more modern tombs during the New Kingdom show elaborate chambers that were dug beneath the ground into the Valley of the Kings. Just as the pyramids, these tombs also took a lifetime to create and were just as grand.
King Tut's tomb has four small chambers: the antechamber, the annex, the burial chamber, and the treasury room.
Major discovery of the 19th century
The tomb revealed an elaborate lifestyle that many people could only dream about as well as providing clues and insight into King Tut’s life and how he lived.
It is thought that Tutankhaton must have had a good childhood. He probably spent his younger years hunting, swimming, and studying. His tomb revealed that he enjoyed board games. He was also believed to be an ill child due to the many walking canes that were found inside his tomb.
After his father’s death, Tutankaton was given the throne. He married his half-sister Ankhensenpaaton. A few years later Tutankaton started to bring back gods that were forbidden by Akhenaten.
Sometime during his tenth year of reigning, Egypt was at war with the Hittites. During this time Tutankhamun suddenly died. It is not discovered how he died yet and it remains as a mystery.
How could a child make these grand decisions when he was so young?
It appears that his adviser, Ay (his wife's grandfather and a high ranking official) most likely made major decisions for him. Ay and Hermhab helped King Tut out behind the throne.
He soon changed his name to Tutankhamun along with changing his wife’s name to Ankhesenamun which means living life to Amun to calm the angry priests down who missed their old Egypt. Also, they soon decided to leave their father’s capital Amarna and relocated their new capital in Memphis and Thebes. With the ancient beliefs restored and the movement of the new capital, King Tutankhamun was praised by many people.
So far the best preserved royal tomb
In KV62, King Tut's tomb,
Categories of Objects Recovered
Human mummies, Tut's two daughters
Scarabs and seals
Warfare and hunting equipment
1. Nebkheperure Tutankhamun was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty (ruled 1333 BC – 1324 BC)
2. King Tut had two known children, both stillborn girls – their mummies were discovered in his tomb.
3. He was 1.65 m (5 ft 5in) tall.
4, Approximately 3500 articles were found in the tomb of King Tut
5. The famous gold mask that rested directly on top of the pharaoh's mummy weighs ten km.
Eighteenth Dynasty Pharaoh
King Tut's mummy
Can you identify who this is?
Symbols: jackal, ox-hide hanging from a pole, embalming equipment, flail and flags
Anubis was worshipped as the inventor of embalming and who embalmed the dead Osiris and thereby helping to preserve him that he might live again.
Anubis had three important functions. He supervised the embalming of bodies. He received the mummy into the tomb and performed the Opening of the Mouth ceremony and then conducted the soul in the Field of Celestial Offerings. Most importantly, Anubis monitored the Scales of Truth to protect the dead from deception and eternal death.
The ancient Egyptians believed if you did something bad, your heart would be heavy, and the god Ammut could suddenly appear and gobble you up!
To find out if your heart qualified for the trip to the afterlife, your spirit had to enter the Hall of Maat. The god Anubis weighed your heart. The god Thoth recorded the findings.
If your heart was light, lighter than a feather, you passed the test and you were sent to live for all eternity in the beautiful 'Field of Reeds'.
The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts that was written in hieroglyphic on a papyrus roll depicting the deceased and their journey into the afterlife.
Treasures found in King Tut's Tomb
The Greatest age
There was an explosion of creativity, wealth and power in Egypt. Successively, Pharaohs expanded and maintained their Empire through both force and diplomacy. In the process, they won Egypt vast amounts of gold, influence and respect.
They included; Ahmose, Hatshepsut, Tuthmosis III, Amenhotep III, Akenhaten, Tutankhamen and Ramesses II
Egypt's success and legacy owes a great deal to those beneath them: the soldiers, craftsmen, priests and farmers.
Gold mines gave Egypt the unimaginable wealth that formed the real power behind the throne. The same gold also saw the start of a golden age for Egyptian art and architecture, as Pharaohs built magnificent temples and tombs for themselves and their families.
Just as important were the women. Egyptian religion gave women a central role in the divine order and they were seen as central to their husbands' success. Although there were only few women in power like Nefertiti and Tiye, all women were treated with respect and enjoyed legal rights.
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