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Sauces

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by

Kelly Marie Hobbs

on 18 November 2016

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Transcript of Sauces

Saucier
Sauces & Stocks
Stock: A clear, thin un-thickened liquid flavoured by:
- Meat, poultry, or fish bones
- Vegetables
- Seasonings
?
- not just salt and pepper!
Where does the flavour come from?
SUPER-DUPER-EXCITING-HARDCORE-GAME!
1. What are the major ingredients in stocks?
2. What is the difference between a light & a dark stock?
3. Where does the majority of a stocks flavour come from?
-
Connective tissues
(
collagen
) break down and form
gelatine
.
- This gives body to a stock.
- A well-made stock
thickens
or
even solidifies
when chilled.
Black Gold
-
Cartilage
is the best source of
gelatin
in bones.
- Younger animals have more cartilage than mature animals

The following types have a lot cartilage and are values in stock-making:
- Knuckle bones
- Neck Bones
- Shank Bones
Why use bones to make stock?
Why not meat?
- Acids help break down connective tissues.


- Tomatoes contribute flavour and to brown stocks.
- Too much tomato can make the stock cloudy.


- Wine is occasionally used, especially for fish stocks.
- Its flavour contribution is more important than its acidity.
Citric acid
Breaking it Down
Sachet d’épices
Herbs and spices are usually tied in a cheesecloth bag
Bouquet Garni
Contains pieces of leek and celery, thyme sprigs, bay leaf, and parsley stems tied in a bundle with string.


Thyme

Parsley stems

Bay leaves

Cloves, whole

Peppercorns

Garlic
Salt is never really used because stocks are often reduced instead.
Common Seasonings used in stocks:


1. Thyme

2. Parsley stems

3. Bay leaves

4. Cloves, whole

5. Peppercorns

6. Garlic
Identify the Seasonings
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.


1. Thyme

2. Parsley stems

3. Bay leaves

4. Cloves, whole

5. Peppercorns

6. Garlic
Identify the Seasonings
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
Oignon brûlé
French for “burnt onion.” At times, it is added to brown stock to give colour as well as flavour.
Oignon piqué
A whole, peeled onion onto which a bay leaf is attached by a whole clove.
Bones: 80 percent
Mirepoix: 10 percent
Water: 100 percent
Stock Proportions
.............
............
............
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII
IIIIIIIIIIIIIII
POT
(not the hippie kind)
The purpose of blanching bones is to rid them of the impurities that cause cloudiness.

The bones of young animals, especially veal and chicken, are highest in impurities that cloud and discolor stocks.
Blanching Bones
If bones are
roasted,
what colour
do they
turn?
?
What does that mean?
What happens to the alcohol?
Other Stocks
Remouillage:
A stock made from bones that were already used once to make stock.The literal meaning in French is “rewetting.”

Dashi: Basic Japanese Stock.
Quickly and easily made from only three ingredients:
1. Water
2. Shaved, dried bonito, called katsuobushi
3. Dried seaweed or kelp called kombu
dried, fermented, and smoked skipjack tuna


Reduction:
Stocks that are concentrated by boiling or simmering them to evaporate part of the water.

Glaze or Glace:
A stock reduced until it coats the back of a spoon.
What is the difference between a
Reduction
and
Glaze
?
- Bases vary greatly in quality. The best ones are composed mainly of meat extracts.
Convenience Bases
Many bases are made primarily from salt so read the list of ingredients!
Using bases requires taste and judgment.
Always taste and evaluate as you cook.
There is no substitute for a well-made stock.
Why would you add a sauce to your plate?
- Moistness
- Flavour
- Richness
- Appearance (colour and shine)
- Interest and appetite appeal
3 Categories of Ingredients
1. A
liquid
, the
body
of the sauce
2. A
thickening agent
3. Additiona
l
seasoning
and
flavouring
ingr
edients

Velouté
= white stock
Espagnole
= brown stock
Béchamel
= milk
Tomato
= tomato sauce
Hollandaise
= clarified butter
Mother sauces = Liquids
Roux:
A cooked mixture of equal parts by weight of fat and flour.

Beurre manié:
A mixture of equal parts soft, raw butter and flour worked together to form a smooth paste.

Liaison:
A mixture of egg yolks and cream, used to enrich and lightly thicken a sauce or other liquid.
Thickeners
"
Finishing
" Sauces
Heavy cream
- Used to give flavour and richness to sauce.M
onter au beurre
is to “
finish with butter.”-
Add a few pieces of softened butter to the hot sauce.- Swirl them in until melted. - The sauce should then be served immediately.
What are the four
Mother Sauces
?
Béchamel
Velouté
Espagnole
Hollandaise/Béarnaise
Name That Sauce!
Time to play...
1 cup milk
A piece of onion or garlic
1 bay leaf
1 to 2 Tbsp butter
1 to 2 Tbsp flour
salt and pepper
What sauce is it?!?!?
Béchamel
1 cup milk
A piece of onion or garlic
1 bay leaf
1 to 2 Tbsp butter
1 to 2 Tbsp flour
salt and pepper
Copy this down please!
What sauce is it?!?!?
1 cup onions, diced
½ cup carrots, diced
½ cup celery, diced
2 Tbsp clarified butter
2 Tbsp flour
6 cups brown stock
¼ cup tomato purée
1 bay leaf
1 cup onions, diced
½ cup carrots, diced
½ cup celery, diced
2 Tbsp clarified butter
2 Tbsp flour
6 cups brown stock
¼ cup tomato purée
1 bay leaf
Espagnole sauce
Take it down please!
What sauce is it?!?!?
3/4 cup butter
3 egg, yolks
1 tbs water
1 tbs lemon juice
1 pinch pepper
3/4 cup butter
3 egg, yolks
1 tbs water
1 tbs lemon juice
1 pinch pepper
Hollandaise
Take it down please!
What sauce is it?!?!?
3 tablespoons butter
3 tablespoons flour
2 cups chicken stock
Salt
Freshly ground white pepper
3 tbsp butter
3 tbsp flour
2 cups chicken stock
Salt
Freshly ground white pepper
Velouté
Write this down please:)
What is
equal portions

fat
and
flour
called?
Bonus Points!
Mother Sauces
Béchamel
Velouté
Espagnole
Hollandaise/Béarnaise
Demi-Glace
not really one but kinda
Full transcript