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Transcript of Adeline
“Implicit to every technology is an “intellectual ethic” that shapes how we discover, acquire, and debate information and knowledge” (Popova).
“Today, the experience of content creation is not a one-way street; there are those that are creating or curating the content or the interaction, and those who react to it or interact with it” (Halvorsen).
“Knowledge alone is not useful unless we can make connections between what we know” (Cooper).
“Just as its origin in the art world, curation online is premised on the idea that a curator with a point of view culls content around a theme that he or she deems of cultural significance. A museum can make a name for itself by being consistently reliable in hosting these conversations (take the MoMA); likewise, a curator can make a name for herself by being consistently compelling in catalyzing those conversations (take Paola Antonelli). But the museum is merely the enabler of that conversation, the curator merely its catalyst, and the cultural conversation itself takes place largely outside the walls of the museum and the control of the curator” (Popova).
What Is Curation?
Why Is Curation Important?
Discourses and Literacies
What is a Discourse?
"A Discourse with a capital 'D' is composed of distinctive ways of speaking/listening and often, too, writing/reading coupled with distinctive ways of acting, interacting, valuing, feeling, dressing, thinking, believing with other people and with various objects, tools and technologies, so as to enact specific socially recognisable identities engaged in specific socially recognisable activities" (James Paul Gee, Social Linguistics and Literacies, 171.
Enculturation; Our first social identity that is acquired from birth.
Acquired within institutions in a wider public sphere.
Two dominant discourses; often persons with more than one culture or ethnicity.
Parents' secondary Discourses that are incorporated into a child's primary Discourse.
"Secondary Discourse all build on, and extend, the uses of language and the values, attitudes and beliefs we acquires as part of our primary Discourse" (James Paul Gee, 194).
A combination of a person's primary and secondary Discourses; How somebody may identify in the present.
"[Discourses] crucially involve a set of values and viewpoints about the relationships between people and the distribution of social goods, at the very least about who is an insider and who isn't" (James Paul Gee, 179).
"Discourses are resistant to internal criticism and self-scrutiny since uttering viewpoints that seriously undermine them defines one as being outside them. The Discourse itself defines what counts as acceptable criticism" (James Paul Gee, 179)
A Discourse is often perceived as "normal" because it is taught as such, not because it is naturally the "right" Discourse to be a part of.
"Discourse-defined positions from which to speak and behave are not, however, just defined internal to a Discourse, but also as standpoints taken up by the Discourse in its relation to other, ultimately opposing Discourses" (James Paul Gee, 179).
"Any Discourse concerns itself with certain objects and puts forward certain concepts, viewpoints and values central to other Discourses. In doing so, it will marginalise viewpoints and values central to other Discourses" (James Paul Gee, 179).
"Discourses are intimately related to the distribution of social power and hierarchical structure in society, which is why they are always and everywhere ideological. Control over certain Discourses can lead to the acquisition of social goods (money, power, status) in a society. These Discourses empower those groups who have the least conflicts with their other Discourses when they use them" (James Paul Gee, 179-180).
Dominant groups of people that benefit in society from few conflicts between their Discourses.
How do people get Discourses?
is a process of acquiring something (usually subconsciously) by exposure to models, a process of trial and error, and practice within social groups, without formal teaching. It happens in natural settings that are meaningful and functional in the sense that acquirers know that they need to acquire the thing they are exposed to in order to function and they, in fact, want to so function. This is how people come to control their first language" (James Paul Gee, 189).
is a process that involves conscious knowledge gained through teaching [...] or through certain life experiences that trigger conscious reflection. This teaching or reflection involved explanation and analysis-- that is, breaking down the thing to be learned into its analytic parts. It inherently involved attaining, along with the matter being taught, some degree of meta-knowledge about the matter" (James Paul Gee, 189).
Discourses are mastered through enculturation, a process of acquisation that allows people to interact and apprentence those who have already mastered the Discourse.
"Classrooms that do not properly balance acquisition and learning, and realise which is which, simply privilege those students who have already begun the acquisition process outside the school" (James Paul Gee, 190-191).
Comes from learning; Allows a person to step outside of a Discourse to analyze it.
Control or mastery of a secondary Discourse
People who are bi-Discoursal are often the only ones able to change a Discourse, as they incorporate multiple experiences
Feeling out of place in a Discourse
A prison term; Using metaknowledge to 'make do' in a Discourse we don't know well.
Can urge a Discourse to evolve
"And I realized that it isn't the broken language and the twisted syntax of the dispossessed that bothers the world. It is the stories they render. It is the feat that beneath the aint's and the sentence fragments are bright beautiful minds that would condemn the world for their alienation and exclusion if they ever got the chance to be heard" (Megan Foss, 32).
"Has to take seriously the ways in which meaning systems are implicated in reproducing
and it has to provide
to dominant languages, literacies, and genres while simultaneously using
as a productive resource for
social futures and for changing the horizon of possibility... This includes both changing the dominant discourses and changing which discourses are dominant" (Janks, 27).
There must be a balance in consideration of how domination, diversity, access, and design reinforce marginality.
Remove systemic barriers instead of changing them.
"Any agents, local or distant, concrete or abstract, who enable, support, teach, model, as well as recruit, regulate, suppress, or withhold literacy-- and gain advantage by it in some way [...] Sponsors are a tangible reminder that literacy learning throughout history has always required permission, sanction, assistance, coercion, or at the minimum, contact with exiting trade routes" (Brandt, 166-167).
Acquired from family, friends, and the immediate community (What is Discourse Explanation of Gee's Concepts of Discourse).
A secondary Discourse in which we learn how to read, write, and use language understood as typical for school. Literacy in an academic Discourse can help people advance in society (Video: What is Discourse Explanation of Gee's Concepts of Discourse).
The ability to step outside of a Discourse to understand it's internal workings.
"As people come together from very different Discourses, they often have to work out rules of engagement for fruitful conversation" (Gee (conclusion), 247)
"Discourses do their work not as boxes or labels, but as waves that cross each other through history, creating ripples big and small" (Gee (conclusion), 249)
"In the current working landscape it is constantly necessary to problem solve and innovate" (Cooper).
What Can We Do With Curation?
"We can seek to produce pedagogical frameworks in our formal learning activities that encourage individuals to cast a critical eye over knowledge and to be more reflective in their approach to learning" (Betts).
“Most scientists consider that it is a more serious handicap to investigate a problem in ignorance of what is already known about it” (Cooper).
"Schools ought to allow all students to acquire, not just learn about, Discourses that can lead to success and effectiveness in their society, should students wish to achieve such success. But they should also question social norms about what constitutes 'success' and a successful human life" (Gee (conclusion), 250)
"Creativity is combinatorial, that nothing is entirely original, that everything builds on what came before, and that we create by taking existing pieces of inspiration, knowledge, skill and insight that we gather over the course of our lives and recombining them into incredible new creations" (Popova, Combinational Creativity).
Types of Literacy
Literacy and Education
"That children from poor and illiterate homes tend to remain poor and illiterate is an unacceptable failure of our schools, one which has occurred not because our teachers are inept but chiefly because they are compelled to teach a fragmented curriculum based on faulty educational theories" (Hirsch, 83).
"Cultural literacy is represented not by a
list of books but rather by a
list of the information actually possessed by literate Americans" (Hirsch, 84).
Jean Jacques Rousseau influenced education theories to not impose "adult ideas" upon children, and rather thought that their intellectual and social skills would develop naturally.
"Only by piling up specific, communally shared information can children learn to participate in complex cooperative activities with other members of their community" (Hirsch, 85).
Anthropological theory of education:
"Deems it neither wrong nor unnatural to teach young children adult information before they fully understand it [...] stresses the universal fact that a human group must have effective communications to function effectively, that effective communications require shared culture, and that shared culture requires transmission of specific information to children"(Hirsch, 85-86).
"The definition and transmission of cultural knowledge has historically been an important facet of efforts to define who may and may not be called truly American" (Hatley).
Acquisition before content
"The last National Assessment of Adult Literacy from 2003 is a bit dated, but it offers a picture of Americans’ ability to read in everyday situations: using an almanac to find a particular fact, for example, or explaining the meaning of a metaphor used in a story. Of those who finished high school but did not continue their education, 13 percent could not perform simple tasks like these. When things got more complex — in comparing two newspaper editorials with different interpretations of scientific evidence or examining a table to evaluate credit card offers — 95 percent failed" (Willington).
"Current education practices show that reading comprehension is misunderstood. It’s treated like a general skill that can be applied with equal success to all texts. Rather, comprehension is intimately intertwined with knowledge. That suggests three significant changes in schooling" (Willington).
"It points to decreasing the time spent on literacy instruction in early grades. Third-graders spend 56 percent of their time on literacy activities but 6 percent each on science and social studies. This disproportionate emphasis on literacy backfires in later grades, when children’s lack of subject matter knowledge impedes comprehension. Another positive step would be to use high-information texts in early elementary grades. Historically, they have been light in content" (Willington).
"Understanding the importance of knowledge to reading ought to make us think differently about year-end standardized tests. If a child has studied New Zealand, she ought to be good at reading and thinking about passages on New Zealand. Why test her reading with a passage about spiders, or the Titanic? If topics are random, the test weights knowledge learned outside the classroom — knowledge that wealthy children have greater opportunity to pick up" (Willington).
"The systematic building of knowledge must be a priority in curriculum design. The Common Core Standards for reading specify nearly nothing by way of content that children are supposed to know — the document valorizes reading skills. State officials should go beyond the Common Core Standards by writing content-rich grade-level standards and supporting district personnel in writing curriculums to help students meet the standards" (Willington).
"It’s never been so easy to pretend to know so much without actually knowing anything [...] Our cultural canon is becoming determined by whatever gets the most clicks" (Greenfeld).
"Nearly six in 10 Americans acknowledge that they do nothing more than read news headlines" (Greenfeld).