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The Washington Agreements
Transcript of The Washington Agreements
Agreements The Four Power Treaty The Washington Naval Conference
took place between 1921 and 1922.
Aim: to reduce arms, and therefore, reduce the threat of war. Signatories: U.S.A, Britain, France & Japan
each country agreed to acknowledge the others' possessions in the Pacific. Disputes relating to this region would be settled diplomatically.
dissolved the Anglo-Japanese Alliance of 1902.
countries agreed to defend each other in the case of an attack. The Five Power Treaty Signatories: U.S.A, Britain, Japan France, Italy
countries agreed to a constant ratio of tonnes of naval arms (5:5:3:1.75:1.75)
current battleships were to be destroyed, in compliance with maintaining this ratio.
no new military bases were to be established in the Pacific. The Nine Power Treaty Signatories: U.S.A, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, China, The Netherlands, Portugal
China could not be annexed or divided.
China's sovereignty was to be acknowledged and respected.
All countries agreed to equal trading right with China.
China agreed not to be discriminatory towards countries desirous of doing business there. Impact prevented the looming arms race, which Britain in particular was unable to fund after WWI.
ended British naval domination.
Britain had to withdraw from the Far East. This meant that the U.S. was now more powerful in the area.
Friction between the U.S. and Britain was reduced.
Japan gained security and control of the eastern Pacific and China. Impact Cont'd However, the treaty:
did not call for enforcement if the terms were breached.
did not cover land forces and arms.
did not include Russia or Germany, two countries who could challenge these disarmament agreements with their desire for military and naval strength.
was ambiguous and therefore allowed for an easy breach of terms, as Japan did in 1931. How successful were the Washington Agreements? weapons were reduced and/or destroyed.
all nations benefited.
the public was interested and supported the idea of disarmament, due to WWI.
the small number of participants made agreeing on the terms easy. "... there is no doubt that the Washington Naval Treaties constituted progress in terms of arms limitations and regional co-operation." - Joe Gauci
"It was the beginning to the process of further disarmament negotiations which could cover other typed of weapons." - Michael Miller
The U.S. Department of State lists this conference as a "milestone".
- "an action or event marking a significant change or state in development" Sources Miller, Michael. “Peacemaking, peacekeeping - international relations, 1918-36.” 20th Century World History. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 46-47. Print.
Gauci, Joe. IB History Route 2: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, International Relations 1918-36. Oxford: OSC Publishing, 2009. Print.
U.S. Department of State Office of the Historian. Milestones: 1921-1936 The Washington Naval Conference, 1921-1922. N.p. n.d. Web. 31 October 2012. <http://history.state.gov/milestones/1921-1936/NavalConference/>.