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Roaring Twenties Project
Transcript of Roaring Twenties Project
There was an estimated 150,000 communist and anarchist in U.S.
This fear led to a series of strikes in 1919 by police officers in Boston, 100,000 steel and coal workers.
Series of bombs also occurred in 1919 which were acts done by the anarchist. The first was in late April which was sent to high level official that included the Attorney General(A. Mitchell Palmer). Second was on June 2,1919 was sent to government officials that were endorsing the anti-sedition and deportation act.
In 1920 6000 people were arrested of being accused of being a communist or anarchist. Not many were held for much time. The only serious arrest were of Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti. The KKK is a combination of three past organization they represent the promote white - supremacy,nationalism and anti-immigration. The beliefs that one's group is a victim, a sentimental which justifies any action against the group's enemies, internal as well as external This term refers to writers and people that rejected the post WWI values.
These people were characterizes due to their belief in lost values, idea of human progress, and their mood of futility and despair.
Hedonism was a belief that is associated with this and is the pursuit of pleasure without pain.
The three main authors of this movement were Ernest Hemingway, F.Scott Fitzgerald, and Gertrude Stein. Lost Generation Cont. Definition- a loss of moral. WWI destroyed the idea that if you acted virtuously then good things would happen, but this was proven wrong when many young men died when they went to war or came home physically or mentally damaged.
Effects- literary figures criticized American culture with fictional stories whose themes were self exile, indulgence(care-free living) and spiritual alienation.
Examples- This side of Paradise and The Great Gatsby. Immigration Immigration Act of 1924(Johnson-Reed Act)
This act limited the number of immigrants that entered the U.S. through the national origin quota. This quota only gave 2% of total number of people of each nationality a visa as of the 1890 census.
Literacy Test- 1917 was the first time U.S. enacted restrictive immigration law. This was due to uncertainty caused by WWI. 1917 act implemented literacy test for immigrants over the age of 16. Immigration cont. The purpose of the literacy test was to test basic reading skill. This act also increase the taxes payed by these immigrants.
Act of 1917 also excluded all immigrants from countries considered a part of the Asiatic Barred Zone except for Japanese and Filipinos.(Due to the Gentlemen's Agreement in 1907)
Means of testing immigrants wasn't sufficient so the Republican Senator from Vermont(William P. Dilllingham) introduced a measure to create immigration quotas set at 3% of population of foreign-born nationality in 1910 census. On October 29, 1929, Black Tuesday hit wall street as investors traded some 16 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors. In the aftermath of Black Tuesday, America and the rest of the industrialized world spiraled downward into the Great Depression (1929-39), the deepest and longest-lasting economic downturn in the history of the western industrialized world up to that time. By 1932 stocks were worth only about 20 percent of their value in the summer of 1929. The stock market crash was not the sole purpose of the great depression, but it did help accelerate the global collapse. Prohibition The primacy of the group, toward which one has duties superior to every right, whether universal or individual. Prohibition made the sell, make, import, export, and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal or restricted. The prohibition began on January 16, 1920, when the eighteenth amendment went into affect. The prohibition was supposed to lower crime and corruption, reduce social problems, lower taxes, and improve health and hygiene in America, but it actually became more dangerous to consume. Organized crime blossomed; courts and prisons became overloaded; and police and public officials became corrupted. Large quantities of alcohol were smuggled into Canada via land and great lakes. Prohibition Cont. Sporting white robes and pointy, white hats, the Klan adapted this clothing in hopes to strike fear into anyone that were to go against their beliefs Hemingway In 1919, members of legislatures of the states ratified the 18th amendment. The 20th amendment is the primary governing document of the U.S. It was ratified on January 23, 1933. It applies specifically to federal officials and sets forth the beginnings and ends of their terms. It further makes provisions for circumstances in which no president-elect is present.
Volstead Act- Formally National Prohibition Act, U.S. law enacted in 1919 to provide enforcement for the eighteenth amendment. It was named after Minnesota Rep. Andrew Volstead, chairman of the house judiciary committee, who had championed the bill and prohibition. The act was vetoed by pres. Woodrow Wilson, but it became a law after congress vetoed to override the veto. Herbert Hoover 1. Hoover creates the supreme economic council
2. Eighteenth prohibition amendment to the U.S. constitution is ratified
3. Senate rejects the League of Nations
4. Hoover becomes President of the American Engineering Council
5. He was appointed the secretary of commerce
6. 1929- Herbert Hoover becomes the 31st U.S. President
-announces tax cuts
-Agricultural marketing act
-Stock market crash Herbert Hoovers Responses to the Great Depression 1st response- Hoover ignored tradition. Instead of Laissez Faire he lead an unprecedented government effort to bring the country out of the Great Depression. He rejected his treasury secretary's advice to sit back and wait the economy out. Hoped for a partnership between private business and government. The stock market crash precipitated the great depression. Precipitated a raft of wrong headed policies that did major damage to the economy. Rise of Standard of Living The roaring 20's was also the great age of popular entertainment in the theaters. Food was plentiful and cheap thanks to the vast quantity produced on American farms. The 1920's was the age of the cinema by the end of 1920's 100 million cinema tickets were sold each week. In the 1920's Americans enjoyed a high standard of living Hoovers second response 2nd response- Public projects undertaken by Hoover included San Francisco Bay Bridge, the Los Angeles aqueduct, and Hoover Dam. Business leaders had to refrain from cutting wages as the economy fell.Hoover proposed that volunteerism within the community was the best antidote for poverty as well as a my raid of the other social problem. He energetically tried to combat the depression with volunteers efforts and government actions, none of which produced economic recovery during his term. Hoovers third response 3rd response-
AAA- Agricultural Adjustment Administration
RFC- Reconstruction Finance Corporation
NRA- National Recovery Administration David Ramos, William Blanton, Jose Reyes