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MUSC 313 Worship in the 5th ~ 15th Cent. Part 3
Transcript of MUSC 313 Worship in the 5th ~ 15th Cent. Part 3
The Apostles’ Creed (the earliest of the three Ecumenical Creeds) is based on the words of the Great Commission of Matthew 28:19, 20. Early Christians usually asked candidates for baptism to confess what they believed about the Holy Trinity
The formulation of the Nicene Creed followed an entirely different historical path than the Apostles' Creed: it was written in response to doctrinal controversies within the Church rather than just as a confession of the Gospel.
The words of the Nicene Creed, are basically the church’s response to Arius' and a few other heresies that were creeping up. This creed highlights the fact that Jesus Christ is true God. It describes Jesus as “God from God, Light from light; true God from true God… of one being with the Father.”
The Athanasian Creed was written in defense of the true teachings of Scripture and also to reject doctrinal errors that were present at the time.
The chief difference between the Nicene Creed and the Athanasian Creed is one of emphasis. The Nicene Creed emphasized the full deity of the Son and of the Holy Ghost and it only implies, rather than explicitly explains, the oneness of God.
The Year begins with Advent – a time of reflection in anticipation of the coming of Christ.
Advent is followed by Epiphany, celebrating the revealing of Christ as God’s anointed one.
The season of LENT (beginning 40 week days before Easter) opens with Ash Wednesday and is a period of penitential remembrance to prepare for Holy Week, and recalls Christ’s 40 days of temptation and self-denial.
In the Western Churches, the Church Year was - and remains to this day - divided into two almost-equal parts: the first some have called “The Life of Christ” while the second is “The Christian Life.
Holy Week – beginning with Palm Sunday – follows the last days of Christ’s life, his “triumphal entry” in Jerusalem, passion, death and burial.
Easter is often called the Christian Passover because it parallels the Jewish holiday and symbolizes the Christian’s deliverance from the bondages of sin and death.
In this second half of the year (also called “Trinity Season,” “The Season of the Holy Spirit,” “The Church Season,” or simply “Ordinary Time”) the emphasis is on God’s purpose for the church in this “age of grace” through the empowering of the Holy Spirit.
Pentecost – whose name is taken directly from the Jewish festival of “first fruits” -- commemorates the coming of the Holy Spirit and the establishing of the Church, and it initiates the second half of the Church Year.
The Athanasian Creed, leaving nothing to be assumed, brings in the idea of the inviolate Oneness of God (there is only one God, not three).
The Church Year
The Eleventh Century Mass
There are two parts of the Mass:
The Liturgy of the Word and the Eucharistic feast.
Liturgy of the Word:
Introit - Kyrie - Prayers
Gloria - Versicle & response
Prayers for the day
Epistle (Cantillation) - Gradual
Alleluia - Sequence
Gospel - Credo
5. Gospel: The service book is carried to the rood-loft with great ceremony
6. Credo: A statement of faith for all to say or sing
1. Kyrie: Often a three-fold repetition of ‘Lord, have mercy’ and ‘Christ, have mercy’
2. Gloria: A song of thanks and praise (Luke 2:14)
3. Collects: Prayers for the day
4. Epistle: New Testament reading
Offertorium - Prayers -
Sanctus and Benedictus -
The Canon of the Mass -
Pater Noster (The Lord’s Prayer)
Agnus Dei - The Communion -
Communion Verses and Response - Postcommunion Cantillation - Ite, Missa Est (versicle of dismissal)
1. Sanctus and Benedictus: Free composition. The Sanctus is repeated again after the Benedictus
2. The Canon of the Mass: Consecration of the bread and wine
3. Pater Noster – The Lord’s Prayer: Free composition; Recitation by the priest
4. Agnus Dei: Free composition in three parts, each beginning Agnus Dei – ‘Lamb of God’
The two parts of the Mass, the Liturgy of the Word and the Eucharistic feast, were two separate services between the 5th and the 10th centuries. Though they were merged in the later Middle Ages (11th century), their distinct characters can still be sensed in Eucharistic celebrations today – one being a preparation for the other.
MUSIC for the LITURGY
The services that reflected the most liturgical elaboration were the Mass and its two preparatory vigils, Vespers and Matins.
The Development of Notation
Guido D’Arezzo (about 995-1050), an Italian monk, did much to develop the miraculous new possibilities of notation, which allowed the choristers in his charge to sing new chants without having heard them first; in other words, to sight-read.
Built around the singing of nine psalms, which are grouped in three ‘Nocturns’ (nightwatches) and alternate with readings which in turn are followed by elaborate responsories.
By the eleventh century Mass was often celebrated with sufficient ceremony to justify it being called a "ritual theatre."
The Schola Cantorum:
A church choir (or a small group of expert cantors). The musical creativity of the 'Schola' gradually changed the Proper into a complex art music, its unique elaboration by polyphony laying the foundations for the future development of Western music.
There was no indication of the relative duration of the notes (this is the reason why there are widely differing schools of thought on the performance of the chant), but even so, the basis of modern notation had been laid down.
Guido D'Arezzo also invented the first solmization method (a solfege system) to help his choirboys to distinguish the tones and semitones that serve as the basis on which the modes are built. The key to his method was a hymn in praise of St. John, the "Ut queant laxis."
UT queant laxis
LAbi reates, Sancti Johannes
The word ‘mass’ is a reference to the last words of the service: Ite, missa est, literally: ‘go, it is the dismissal.’
‘Mass’ is an Anglicization of the Latin word "missa."
Léonin, one of the composers at the Notre Dame music school, was the best composer of organum. He wrote the Great Book of Organum, for Mass and Office, to augment the Divine Service. In the music he supplied an extra vocal line. This was added to sections of chants, which were already decorative, such as Graduals or Alleluias at Mass or Responsorial chants at Matins.
Begins with a reading from Psalm 70 verse 1, and continues with five psalms, each with its own antiphon. The reading is then followed by a hymn, which in turn leads to the high point of the service, the singing of the Magnificat. The service finishes with the closing verses and responses.
The extra line that Léonin added, called the duplum or second part, needed considerable singing skill. It had to be sung quite fast, not least because as many as forty notes of the duplum fitted to just one of the original chant.
Perotin, Léonin’s successor, shortened parts of these compositions. At the same time, he enriched the harmony still further by adding new voice parts a triplum (third part) and sometimes even a quadruplum (fourth part).
Polyphony was officially born.