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Human nature and violence
Transcript of Human nature and violence
war satisfies deep-rooted needs
Lorenz - ethology
Is aggression really an instinct?
Man is different from other animals
The drive-discharge model
Crowding and territoriality
Wilson - Sociobiology
unique set of human genes -->similar human culture
Adaptiveness / genetic fitness
Genetic disposition is reflected in human social and cultural institutions
War-making behavior - inherited
man learns aggression from his cultural environment
Aggression as well as peaceful cooperative attitudes is learnt
from nomadic hunter-gatherer stage to settled agricultural-pastoral existence
Leaky - Agricultural revolution
Schmookler - Parable of the tribes
Imitate most aggressive rivals: build communities, construct large scale pol org, initiate tax system, military inst--> creation of ever more powerful and militant societies--> powerful militaristic pol units spread out throughout the world--> wars between societies became endemic
(Fabbro's 7 - Malaysia, Bolivia, Zaire, Northern Canada, South Pacific, Kalahari)
structural prerequisite, ec surplus, coercive hierarchy, leadership - absent
social learning theory
Bandura - aggression learnt from social environment
Human nature as a cause of war
Human nature - a set of traits or predispositions common to all people at all times - constant can not explain variations in war and peace
Are human beings by nature aggressive?
Human nature and violence
Unpack human nature
- cognitive ability
- emotional makeup
- propensity to take risks
Factors vary across individuals
Does human nature explain peace as well as war; long great power peace since WW2; sustained peace between the US and Canada?
Warfare is only an invention
Possibility of warfare is present in all societies
If they have the invention, civilized, mild, violent, assertive peoples all go to war
People who have customs of dueling will have duels and people who have pattern of vendetta will indulge in vendetta
Why are some nations peaceful at some time
but aggressive at other?