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Grammar Basics 1
Transcript of Grammar Basics 1
A Prezi created by Mrs. Micki Clark - www.micki-clark.com
There are six types of noun:
Common nouns name general people, places, things, or ideas:
girl, school, car, honesty
Proper nouns name specific people, places, or things:
Amanda, Madisonville-North Hopkins High School, Camry
Please take notice: common nouns are not capitalized (unless, of course, they are the first word of the sentence). Proper nouns are capitalized no matter what!
You can perceive a concrete noun with one (or more) of your five senses (touch, taste, smell, hearing, sight). An abstract noun can't be perceived in this way.
Here's a hint: people, places, and things are going to be CONCRETE. You can see your desk. You can hear it creaking under you. You can touch its surface. If you lean down, you can smell it. I don't advise tasting it, but I guess you could.
Ideas will be ABSTRACT. Think about it. Can you see pride? Smell it?
Nouns that show ownership are called POSSESSIVE nouns. We generally show ownership using an apostrophe, like so:
Singular nouns (like "cat") get an 's: cat's
Plural nouns that end in s just get an apostrophe: cats'
And plural nouns that don't end in s get an 's: children's
By the way, this is a rule using AP style (like newspapers use). When you attend college, your professors might use a different style, and therefore a different rule. AP style is most common, though.
Collective nouns are hard (sorry!) The problem here is that we are so used to saying the wrong thing, the correct answer sounds strange to us.
If the noun refers to the group acting as a unit, it's singular: Our team usually wins. (The team doesn't all win separately--it's an action done together).
If the noun refers to the group acting individually, it's plural: The team are all expected to earn good grades. (The team members must all do this in different classes).
A pronoun is a word that replaces a noun.
One very important word you need to learn: the ANTECEDENT. The antecedent is the word that the pronoun replaced in the original phrase or sentence.
car to the store.
Most of your teachers have probably taught you that verbs are "doing" words, and that's a fair guess...if you're talking about action verbs.
Indeed, the majority of verbs are used to show action (run, walk, dance).
So...what kind of verbs DON'T show action? What do they "do"?
Linking verbs join, or "link", the subject to words in the predicate. I like to think of linking verbs as equals signs, because most linking verbs join a subject and its predicate NOMINATIVE (a noun that renames the subject) or predicate ADJECTIVE (an adjective that further describes the subject).
Helping verbs "help" the verb by clarifying its meaning.
Typically, helping verbs are used to show tense:
to the store.
to the store.
Here's a chart of helping verbs:
And by the way...
gerunds are verbs masquerading as nouns. We'll talk about them in detail on another day.
of a sentence is the noun or the pronoun the sentence is about.
. Here are some examples:
milk. (action verb)
spoiled!! (linking verb)
it all. (helping verb)
There are several steps to sentence diagramming, but we are going to start small and simple, just focusing on diagrams with simple SUBJECTS and simple PREDICATES. Start by drawing a baseline and a center line, just like this:
The first step when diagramming is to identify the simple subject and simple predicate.
the student a textbook.
The second step is to draw the basic diagram and place your subjects and predicates. REMEMBER: you only capitalize a word if it's capitalized in the original sentence!
What if the subject of the sentence isn't obvious?
The subject isn't directly stated--it's
What if there's more than one subject? More than one predicate? More than one of EACH? Yikes!
I call this diagram a pencil-tip.
John ran and jumped.
John and Sarah ran and jumped.
We're going to learn more sentence diagramming.
If you'd like to get a head start on some practice, you can find the posters on the class blog:
Just click on "posters."