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Chapter 5: Peers and Peer Groups

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Tennisha Riley

on 12 July 2016

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Peers and Peer Groups

Crowds and Cliques
- Adolescent
are based on shared similar images or reputations, or common features such as ethnicity or neighborhood,
Popularity and Rejection
Historical Context:
From Childhood to Adolescence
4 Major Changes Occur:
How Important Are Peers?
- The amount of time spent with peer drastically increases over the course of adolescence.
Chapter 5: Peers and Peer Groups
Has age grouping helped or hurt adolescents?
Argument for
These changes in adolescent peer relationships can be explained by your previous transitions...
There are two forms of popularity in adolescence....
- This
does not
include the amount of time with peer at school.
- Due to age segregation in contemporary society
peer groups (
groups of people who are roughly the same age) are formed.
- peer groups are one of the most important contexts in which adolescents spend time.
Not all peers are friends!
Mid 19th Century
Surge in the Number of Adolescents
- Post World War II
The Adolescent Boom!
- Size of 15-19 year old population doubled.
Current Trends
- The population of adolescents decreased after 1975
Trends in Population Shape Behavior
Contemporary Education
- Free public education for all...well some.
Age Grouping Begins to Affect Adolescents
- Prior to 1930, only more affluent youth attended high school.
How did peer groups begin to form?
- Students were grouped by age, or what is known as "age grading".
- High School was seen as a luxury, until free education and age grouping.
- Created shifts in how adolescents formed peer groups and made friends.
- Adolescents now had more access to same-age youth.
- Families wanted to have as many children as soon as possible
- Noted as the post-war baby boom
- Number of adolescents in 1955, 7%
- Number of adolescents 1975, well over 10%
- 1 out of 6 Americans was an adolescent.
- 1 out of 7 Americans is an adolescent
- Expected to stay on trend...but remember this is factored by birthrates.
Baby Boomers
- Born in late 1940s-mid 1950s
Generation Y or "Millennials"
- Born in the 1980s-early 1990s
Generation X
- Born in the early 1970s
Generation Z or "iGeneration"
- Born during the 1990s
- Crowded adolescent cohort
- Competitive job and college market
- More adolescents meant more attention toward social policies and advertising
- smoking within peer groups
- Smaller adolescent cohort
- Less competitive, but still brought attention to social policies
: adolescent crime and juvenile justice policies were created.
- Children of baby boomers.
- Rising cost of education and income inequality gap
- Larger cohort than generation X
- Internet access and social media shape their peer groups and peer context.
Argument for
- increase in adolescent risk behaviors since 1940
-separate youth culture was created
- Rates of adolescent risk behavior has actually fluctuated
- Peers influence adolescents in negative but also positive ways
1. More time is spent with peers than with adults
2. Less adult-supervised time with peers.
3. More contact between male and female peers
4. Development of larger peer groups, crowds, and cliques.
Social Redefinition
Puberty prompt adolescents to seek more distance from parents, as well as wanting to engage in intimate relationships...you need to be alone.
Abstract thinking allows for adolescents to define what they value in friends and distinguish peer groups.
Adolescents find peers that are more similar to themselves.
are smaller groups often of the same sex and same age. They can be formed by similar activities or friendships.
Question: What form of peer groups is described in the clip?
While these structures are similar they have unique differences...
Structure of cliques:
1. members
2. liaisons
3. isolates
adolescents who have most of their social interactions with other members of the clique.
adolescents who interact with a few members of a clique but are not in the clique themselves.
adolescents who have few or no links with cliques of other networks of peers.
The are patterns that occur within adolescents when it comes to cliques...
True or False: Most adolescents are "cliquish"
False: less than half of adolescents are members of cliques
True of False: Girls are more likely to be members of cliques.
True: Boys are also more likely to be isolates
True or False: Adolescents who are in cliques remain in cliques throughout adolescence
True & False: There is stability in clique membership over time, but adolescents may change which clique they are a part of as they grow.
- Crowds different from cliques in that they are not intended to build intimate relationships.
- Crowds serve to....
1. Locate within the social structure at school
2. Steer adolescents toward positive peers or away from negative peers
3. Provide context that rewards certain lifestyles and disparages others
Because crowds are based on stereotypes and
there are implications for adolescents...
- reputations are maintained throughout adolescence.
- some adolescents may feel that they belong to more than one crowd.
Chapter 5 Take-Aways
Why are crowds important to adolescents?
- Crowds provide information about
reference groups
Adolescents are able to reference themselves in their social context
Provides information on an adolescents values and preferences
Cliques are formed through similarities. Which has implications for how adolescents form friends based on...
- sex differences
- race/ethnicity differences
- age differences
- As adolescents get older they tend to hang out with people who are more like them.
Similarities and Stability in Friendships
Selection Vs. Socialization
Are adolescents attracted to one another through similarities?
Do adolescents become more similar to one another because friends influence each other?
Both selection and socialization occur between adolescents and their friends...just in different ways;
- Socialization:
Clothing or music preference
- Selection:
activities and behaviors (positive & negative
Selection has the strongest impact on antisocial and risk behaviors...
because adolescents find friends with common interest in academics, teen culture, and unfortunately
risk behaviors.
Two things happen:
1. Adolescents who engage in more antisocial and risk behavior seek others who engage in similar activities.
2. Their behavior is continuously shaped by these friends.
How do you think this affects group treatment programs or juvenile placement?
iatrogenic effects :
unintended adverse consequences of treatment
- School detention
- Group treatment
- Juvenile Justice facilities
- Youth placement centers
Sociometric Popularity
Perceived Popularity
- refers to how well someone is liked
- refers to how much status or prestige someone has
positive social skills
sense of humor
varies due to what adolescents define as status and prestige
Aggression and the Peer Context
- Research previously indicated that adolescents who are aggressive or antisocial were also more likely to be rejected by peer.
...this is no longer the case because we understand there are two types of aggression.
instrumental aggression
which is deliberate and planned
reactive aggression
aggression that is unplanned and impulsive
Adolescents are still seen as popular even when they display what type of aggressive behavior?
Relational Aggression
aggression that is intended to harm through manipulation of social status.
-typically in the form of rumors, gossip, creating "cliques" that exclude others
- adolescents who use relational aggression are seen as "popular", because it is based on social status attainment,
perceived popularity.
Although this has mostly been examined in adolescent girls, boys also engage in relational aggression...girls just tend to do it more.
- Some growing research into how social media platforms may further influence the use of relational aggression among boys and girls.
- Similar trends cross-cultural work (University of Zambia- Audrey Mwanza): http://www.ajol.info/index.php/mjz/article/viewFile/134557/124189
Victimization and Harassment
Withdrawn youth are often anxious in the presence of other adolescents....
which leads to more awkward social interactions and rejection.
Further, consequences of rejection such as depression can lead to further victimization.
! protective factor:

seeing other people being victimized.
- peers an important role in the psychological development of adolescents.
-unpopular and rejected adolescents tend to have a number of
psychosocial and psychological adjustment issues
from their experiences.
- there are differences between cliques and crowds, but most adolescents make friends with others who are "
" them.
iatrogenic effects

are also seen in interventions intended to reduce violence among minority youth.
- a matter of safety and protection (Ta-nehisi Coates)
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