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Unit One and Two Review WHAP

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by

Marci Ward

on 16 December 2015

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Transcript of Unit One and Two Review WHAP

Classical China
Qin and Han Dynasties
Paleolithic Era
Hunters and Gatherers
Early Civilizations
Characteristics
Classical India
Mauryan and Gupta Empires
Classical Mediterranean
Classical Mediterranean
Persian Empire
Imperial Rome
Trade and diffusion
Silk Roads and Indian Ocean
Silk Roads-
most extensive land routes, able to flourish bc imperial powers kept routes safe
From China- horses, spices, silk, perfumes, tea
From India- cotton, spices, Buddhism
From Med. Sea- olives, gold, Christianity (not as far as Budd though)
From ALL- epidemic diseases and culture
Classical Mediterranean
Greek city-states
Growth of Civilization:
Early Civs and Classical Empires

Units One and Two Review
increased pop. density, led to the rise of cities
created specialized jobs and social inequalities (based on wealth, gender)
required organized govts. and urban planning
increased technology (irrigation, pottery, metallurgy, wheels, math/science knowledge)
writing systems developed (cuneiform, hieroglyphics, Phoenician alphabet)
more stable food supply--> longer life spans, pop. growth
Paleolithic Age = "Old Stone Age"
began to manipulate the environment (ex- fire)
developed stone tools
small nomadic tribes, little gender or social inequality, few possessions
survived off of hunting and gathering or pastoralism
early religious beliefs (mostly animistic and tied to nature)
Neolithic Revolution
Shift to agriculture
Remember that most early civs began near river valleys!
Law Codes: Hammurabi's Code (Babylon/Mesopotamia), "eye for an eye", protection of private property
Organized govts (often tied to religion): pharoahs, Mandate of Heaven
Growth of trade: cities serve as commercial and cultural centers
City-states often became unified through conquest to form empires
Monumental architecture, often tied to religion, req'd slaves, $$ (taxes), and organization: ziggurats, pyramids
Urban planning: sewers, streets, defensive walls
Literature: Rig Veda, Book of the Dead, Epic of Gilgamesh
Organized religions: Hinduism, Judaism, ancestor worship
Growth of Major World Religions
Classical Period:
600BCE-600CE
Rise of civilization:
8000BCE-600CE
Mauryan Empire
Gupta Empire
Political:
Most important leader was Ashoka
converted to Buddhism, encouraged its spread into SE Asia
ruled with tolerance toward Hinduism, allowed both religions to co-exist peacefully

Economic:
engaged in trade w/ Middle East, China, and the Roman Empire (mainly spices and cotton)

Cultural:
inherited strong Hindu traditions from Aryan invaders, though Buddhism became popular among lower castes, Hinduism remained prominent
"Golden Age of Hindu Culture"

Achievements:
concept of pi and 0
decimal system
Numerals 1-9 (later called Arabic numerals)
surgery textbooks
Sanskrit poetry (tied to Hindu beliefs)

Social:
reduced status of women, caste system remained intact

Collapsed due to invasions from the neighboring White Huns, Hinduism provides stability
Note: These two empires were anomalies- India's political tradition was one of regional rule and decentralization
Qin dynasty
Han dynasty
Political:
Shi Huangdi took control after "Era of Warring States" following collapse of Zhou dynasty.
created unified, well-organized empire
Legalist philosophy- strict rules and punishments
began construction on Great Wall

Economic:
Mostly agricultural, much more isolated than India and the Med.

Social:
patriarchal, few rights for women

Collapsed after rule of Shi Huangdi
Political:
maintained organized bureaucracy, developed civil service examination to assign govt. jobs (based on Confucianism)

Cultural:
secular philosophies vs religions (Conf, Daoism, Legalism), spread of Buddhism via trade connections w/ India

Economic:
trade thrived during this time (Silk Roads), connections w/ India, Middle East, and the Roman Empire

Collapsed due to internal and external factors (similar to Rome)- overextension, high taxes, peasant rebellions, outside invasions
Confucianism helped maintain stability after the collapse, though.
Political:
conquered earlier ancient civs, extended from India to Egypt
satrapies- regional provinces, left alone as long as they paid taxes to the empire
ruled w/ tolerance as they conquered other regions/cultures
built Royal Road to connect empire
Cultural:
Zoroastrianism
Economic:
qanat system allowed irrigation in desert

Decline:
overextension --> hard to control/maintain
--> vulnerable to attack --> Alex the Great
City-states developed independently due to geography (b/c of mts)
Absorbed and adapted Phoenician alpha (influenced modern day alpha)
Achievements:
democratic govt.- direct democracy in Athens
art&architecture- idealism, symmetry
literature- dramas/plays (gives us info about their rel beliefs and daily life)
philosophy- Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
limited technology compared to China (b/c they had more slaves)

Political:
transitioned from republic to empire in 30BCE, controlled entire Med. Sea at its height, used citizenship as reward for loyalty, used military and roads to unite empire

Cultural:
copy/pasted Greek culture, Christianity introduced, and persecuted at first. Eventually tolerated, and then accepted as official religion near empire's collapse.

Social:
patriarchal (paterfamilias- similar to Ch and In), large slave labor force

Collapse:
internal+external factors (like China)- tensions w/ Christianity, overexpansion, political instability, high taxes, rebellions, invasions from barbarian tribes)

West collapsed, East survived (Byzantine Empire)
Indian Ocean-
diffused Buddhism to SE Asia
syncretism- Buddhism adapted to local customs as it spread
Dependent on monsoon winds
Led to creation of dhow ships and lateen sails
Bantu Migrations
While most people stayed in one place during this time, there was movement in sub-Saharan Africa. The Bantus spread agricultural techniques
Know the empires
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