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GIS Applications in Restoration Ecology

535 Restoration Ecology at Iowa State University - short presentation
by

Claudette Sandoval-Green

on 24 September 2017

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Transcript of GIS Applications in Restoration Ecology

GIS Applications in Restoration Ecology
By Claudette Sandoval-Green
Questions?
Introduction
Motivation & Methodology
Results
Discussion
The field of Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis has grown exponentially in the past two decades.
Virtually no field is untouched by some aspect of GIS:
Business
Banking
Insurance
Logistics
Media
Real Estate
Retail
Government
National Government
Local Government
Homeland Security
Military Defense
Emergency Medical Services
Fire
Disaster Relief
Law Enforcement
Health
Transportation
help.
Education & Science
Research
Libraries and Museums
K-12 Education
Higher Education
Environment & Conservation
Water
Oceans
Land
Wildlife
Vegetation
Natural Resources
Agriculture
Forestry
Mining
Petroleum
Pipelines
Utilities &
Communication
Power Management
Electricity
Gas
Telecommunications
Water and Waste water
Introduction
Motivation & Methodology
Results
Discussion
GIS has become a very powerful tool for these industries to rely upon where decisions must be ...
Accurate
Timely
Cost Efficient
What is a GIS?
Most of us know that Geographic Information Systems is a tool for making and analyzing spatial information that is in some way referenced to a location on the earth.
Bolstad (2008), in GIS Fundamentals defines it as a computer based system to aid in the collection, maintenance, storage, analysis, output, and distribution of spatial data and information.
All GIS definitions entail a "where" and a "what" -

"where"
being the absolute and
relative location of a feature and

"what"
being the properties and
attributes of those features.
Six Parts of a GIS
Network
local machine, intranet, or internet
Software
general purpose, and applications systems - ArcGIS
Data
geographic data digitally stored in GIS
Procedures
agreements, standards
People
to implement, maintain and operate the GIS
Hardware
PC, Server, PDA
There is a recent trend to use 'geospatial' in place of 'geographic'; however, the two terms are different.
tag me!
Geographic
Information System
Geospatial
Information System
refers to the strict definition
of using layers of data to
analyze and derive maps
more broadly used to refer to all
technologies and applications of
geographic data
Restoration Ecology is a developing science. As such, it is relatively recent to the use of GIS technology in aiding researchers and resource managers.
The role of GIS in the field of restoration ecology has yet to be completely fleshed-out as the technology advances, and new methods and models are developed.
My paper is an attempt to review applications of GIS technology in the field of restoration ecology, and to summarize a few interesting examples of its use in aiding restoration projects.
Nothing fancy

The methodology for this paper explored peer-reviewed literature, books, articles, and web site resources based on the theme of the role of GIS in restoration ecology.
The motivation for this paper was to expand my own GIS knowledge (and that of the reader's), as I am personally invested in the field as a student in the GIS Graduate Certificate Program in the College of Design.
Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
GIS Modeling
Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)
Radio Telemetry and Tracking
A GIS Approach to Prioritizing Habitat for Restoration Using Neotropical Migrant Songbird Criteria
Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
(Holzmueller et al. 2011)
Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
Multi-Criteria Analysis is a GIS
decision making tool for complex
problems that require analyzing
more than one layer of data at
a time.
This technique can be used to
prioritize a specific attribute such
as high ranking land criteria targeted
for reforestation.
Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
This study examined the use
of GIS-based multi-criteria to
prioritize land selected for
reforestation along the
Kaskaskia River in Illinois.
They used these methods to increase
their efficiency at determining the
least amount of area that will gain the
highest increase in habitat quality to
restore migrant songbird habitat.
Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
They accomplished this by prioritizing
areas for reforestation based on 9
landscape criteria:

1. available agriculture land
2. forest cover gaps
3. edge density
4. proximity to river
5. 200 m corridor area
6. total forest core area
7. fringe core area
8. distance to primary core value
9. primary core area
Landowner parcels ranked according to habitat restoration priority for forest interior birds.
Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
The authors were able to conclude
that high priority areas for reforestation were most likely to be close to the riparian corridor and existing large blocks of forest.
These results also indicated the that the greatest rate of return can be attained by reforesting 10% of the highest priority parcels.
Therefore restoring these parcels with
native vegetation will have the greatest
impact on reducing fragmentation and
increasing habitat quality for migrant
songbirds.
This project demonstrates how GIS and
mulit-criteria analysis can be utilized to
increase the efficiency and cost effectiveness of restoration projects for resource managers.
GIS Modeling
GIS Modeling
GIS Modeling
GIS Modeling
Landscape-level phenology of a threatened butterfly: a GIS-based modeling approach
(Weiss and Weiss 1998)
Model building with GIS technology is the process of creating new GIS products from existing products.
For example, using ModelBuilder
in ArcGIS, computer programming
scripts can be developed by using
Python, C++, JAVA, and Visual Basic.
This GIS application gives the
most flexibility for creativity, but
it can also be the most difficult
to build.
Bay Checkerspot
(Euphydryas editha bayensis)
endemic to the San Francisco Bay Area region of California.
Study area along the Kaskaskia River in Illinois.
In this study, the authors demonstrate
how a phenological model can be
implemented on a GIS by combining
daily weather, a topographic model
of the habitat, a growth model, and
field data on the distribution and
abundance of larvae in the habitat
to predict adult butterfly emergence
curves.
What is Phenology?
The study of periodic plant and animal life cycle events.
Such as, the date of emerging leaves and flowers, first butterfly flight, and first appearance of migratory birds.
And how these are influenced by climate cues and habitat features.
Bay Checkerspot Butterfly caterpillar
Flowchart of model structure and data inputs.
The key procedure in this model was
linking a daily weather record to a solar
radiation model and calculating
accumulated insolation across a digital
elevation model (DEM).
The results showed that compared to the model's predictions in 1988 for larvae emergence, the predictions for 1989 were much later.
These model predictions matched
the flight seasons observed
in situ

during mark-recapture studies in
the same years.
This study demonstrates how GIS modeling can be used to understand the phenological variations in space and time in a complex terrain, and these results may provide insights into population dynamics for conservation and restoration of rare species.
GIS Modeling
Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)
GIS-based modeling of spawning habitat suitability for walleye in the Sandusky River, Ohio, and implications for dam removal and river restoration.
(Gillenwater et al. 2006)
Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)
Habitat Suitability Index is a tool used to identify target habitat to facilitate decision making and ecosystem restoration.
Originally developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service in the 1970s.
HSI can also be used to identify and prioritize
areas for conservation actions and for determining the potential impacts of environmental change.
Walleye
(Sander vitreus)
The next study focuses on the loss of freshwater habitat in the Sandusky River in Ohio.
Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)
This river has been the subject of a
controversial river restoration project
since 2006 to the present.
The intent is to remove a high-head dam
to give Walleye access to upstream
spawning areas.
The dam was scheduled to be removed in 2012, but it is still standing today - officials have promised to make a determination by the end of 2013.
Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)
These researchers use an HSI model
through ArcGIS with an existing
one-dimensional river model to
determine the spatial distribution
of depth, velocity, and the distribution
of habitat suitability for spawning
Walleye.

All modules within the GIS box are geoprocessing tools carried out by ArcGIS.
The model was evaluated against
in situ
measurements.
Egg density results had a significant
positive correlation with HSI, which
suggested that the model could be
used to give a general idea of high
quality spawning habitat.
Habitat Suitability Model
Water flowing over the Ballville Dam in 2011.
Habitat Suitability Index models are useful tools
for restoration projects as they add information
about the current or potential future habitat
conditions and could be used to make predictions
or determinations about the progress of a restoration project.
Spawning Walleye
Radio Telemetry and Tracking
Habitat Use by Ocelots in South Texas: Implications for Restoration
(Harveson et al. 2004)
Radio Telemetry and Tracking
Radio telemetry and tracking studies involve attaching a radio transmitter to free-ranging wild animals for the purpose of tracking individual movement.
This provides detailed data on habitat
use, home range size, patch preference,
mortality and survivorship, migration
timing and routes -
Ocelot
(Leopardus pardalis)
Radio Telemetry and Tracking
All of which can be utilized by GIS technology to
determine where and possibly how habitat
restoration projects should be implemented.
Radio Telemetry and Tracking
Study area southern Texas identifying ocelot use of canopy cover and soil series.
In this study they utilize 8 years
of ocelot radio telemetry data
and analyze it using a GIS to
track habitat preferences based
on soil type and canopy cover
to determine site suitability for
future ocelot restoration projects.
The results showed that ocelots prefer habitat with dense canopy cover over open canopy, and selected the areas of four different soil series in greater proportion than available, but was 82% of the selected dense canopy cover areas.
Radio Telemetry and Tracking
They acknowledge that soil selection was
indirect and dependent on vegetation
canopy cover, vegetation composition,
and prey abundance, and that these
soil series should be the target for
restoration based on their potential
to support ocelot habitat.
Geographic Information Systems is a valuable and perhaps critical tool for
the science and practice of restoration ecology.
Four different GIS techniques
were surveyed for their role
in restoration ecology:
1. Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA)
2. GIS modeling
3. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI)
4. Radio Telemetry and Tracking
The results for all of these studies are
only as good as the quality of data
provided.
And, although we strive to use the highest quality
of data available, organisms and the environment
are natural phenomena with far more complexity
than any model can capture.
Therefore, predictions made with the aid
of a GIS should be considered as
approximations to reality.
I think it would be interesting to
repeat some of these studies with
a newer version of ArcGIS to
compare for accuracy and changes.
And Finally, I wanted to note that GIS
and restoration ecology seem like a
natural coupling; however, GIS studies
are not emphasized or advanced in
ecological course curricula, despite
the increasing importance of developing
skills in GIS analysis and modeling for
competitiveness in academia and
employment in applied ecology.
As such, there still seems to be a gap
and disconnect between the field of
GIS and the natural sciences.
Full transcript