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Period 3: 1754-1800
Transcript of Period 3: 1754-1800
British imperial attempts to reassert control over its colonies and the colonial reaction to these attempts produced a new American republic, along with struggles over the new nation’s
social, political, and economic identity.
Key Concept 3.1: Britain’s victory over France in the imperial struggle for North America led to new conflicts among the British government, the North American colonists, and American Indians, culminating in the creation of a new nation, the United States.
I. Throughout the second half of the 18th century, various American Indian groups repeatedly evaluated and adjusted their alliances with Europeans, other tribes, and the new United States government.
A. English population growth and expansion into the interior disrupted existing French–Indian fur trade networks and caused various Indian nations to shift alliances among competing European powers.
B. After the British defeat of the French, white–Indian conflicts continued to erupt as native groups sought both to continue trading with Europeans and to resist the encroachment of British colonists on traditional tribal lands.
Huron & French vs British, Colonists, & Iroquois
Ohio River Valley
Albany Plan of Union
Louisburg & Quebec
Treaty of Paris 1763
Proclamation of 1763
Paxton Boys 1764
C. During and after the colonial war for independence, various tribes attempted to forge advantageous political alliances with one another and with European powers to protect their interests, limit migration of white settlers, and maintain their tribal lands.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
Treaty of Greenville
resist & fight
II. During and after the imperial struggles of the mid-18th century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights, sparking a colonial independence movement and war with Britain.
A. Great Britain’s massive debt from the Seven Years’ War resulted in renewed efforts to consolidate imperial control over North American markets, taxes, and political institutions — actions that were supported by some colonists but resisted by others.
B. The resulting independence movement was fueled by established colonial elites, as well as by grassroots movements that included newly mobilized laborers, artisans, and women, and rested on arguments over the rights of British subjects, the rights of the individual, and the ideas of the Enlightenment.
C. Despite considerable loyalist opposition, as well as Great Britain’s apparently overwhelming military and financial advantages, the patriot cause succeeded because of the colonists’ greater familiarity with the land, their resilient military and political leadership, their ideological commitment, and their support from European allies.
III. In response to domestic and international tensions, the new United States debated and formulated foreign policy initiatives and asserted an international presence.
A. The continued presence of European powers in North America challenged the United States to find ways to safeguard its borders, maintain neutral trading rights, and promote its economic interests.
B. The French Revolution’s spread throughout Europe and beyond helped fuel Americans’ debate not only about the nature of the United States’ domestic order, but also about its proper role in the world.
C. Although George Washington’s Farewell Address warned about the dangers of divisive political parties and permanent foreign alliances, European conflict and tensions with Britain and France fueled increasingly bitter partisan debates throughout the 1790s.
Key Concept 3.2: In the late 18th century, new experiments with democratic ideas and republican forms of government, as well as other new religious, economic, and cultural ideas, challenged traditional imperial systems across the Atlantic World.
I. During the 18th century, new ideas about politics and society led to debates about religion and governance, and ultimately inspired experiments with new governmental structures.
A. Protestant evangelical religious fervor strengthened many British colonists’ understandings of themselves as a chosen people blessed with liberty, while Enlightenment philosophers and ideas inspired many American political thinkers to emphasize individual talent over hereditary privilege.
Examples: John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Adam Smith, etc.
B. The colonists’ belief in the superiority of republican self-government based on the natural rights of the people found its clearest American expression in Thomas Paine’s Common Sense and in the Declaration of Independence.
C. Many new state constitutions and the national Articles of Confederation, reflecting republican fears of both centralized power and excessive popular influence, placed power in the hands of the legislative branch and maintained property qualifications for voting and citizenship.
II. After experiencing the limitations of the Articles of Confederation, American political leaders wrote a new Constitution based on the principles of federalism and separation of powers, crafted a Bill of Rights, and continued their debates about the proper balance between liberty and order.
A. Difficulties over trade, finances, and interstate and foreign relations, as well as internal unrest, led to calls for significant revisions to the Articles of Confederation and a stronger central government.
B. Delegates from the states worked through a series of compromises to form a Constitution for a new national
government, while providing limits on federal power.
C. Calls during the ratification process for greater guarantees of rights resulted in the addition of a Bill of Rights shortly after the Constitution was adopted.
D. As the first national administrations began to govern under the Constitution, continued debates about such issues as the relationship between the national government and the states, economic policy, and the conduct of foreign affairs led to the creation of political parties.
III. While the new governments continued to limit rights to some groups, ideas promoting self-government and personal liberty reverberated around the world.
A. During and after the American Revolution, an increased awareness of the inequalities in society motivated some individuals and groups to call for the abolition of slavery and greater political democracy in the new state and national governments.
B. The constitutional framers postponed a solution to the problems of slavery and the slave trade, setting the stage for recurring conflicts over these issues in later years.
C. The American Revolution and the ideals set forth in the Declaration of Independence had reverberations in France, Haiti, and Latin America, inspiring future rebellions.
Debt$ from 7 years War = end of Salutary Neglect
1765- Stamp Act leads to Stamp Act Congress- tarring feathering, smuggling, and boycotting leads to its repeal
Committees of Correspondence
Boston Tea Party
Coercive (Intolerable Acts)
First Continental Congress
"shot heard round the world"
Sons of Liberty
Mercy Otis Warren
hosted meetings for Sons of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence
published poems and plays attacking British authority
no taxation without representation vs. virtual representation
life, liberty, and property
How was the war won?
great leaders i.e. George Washington
deep commitment to the cause
foreign aid i.e. French
Treaty of Paris (1783) - British acknowledge american independence and give up land west to the Mississippi
French and Britain are at war, US declares neutrality
British still holding on to forts in America and is impressing sailors into their navy
George Washington- warned of permanent foreign alliances and political parties
Federalists- British support (Alexander Hamilton)
Thomas Jefferson- French support ( Thomas Jefferson)
What is the American Identity?
John Locke- natural rights
Adam Smith - Wealth of Nations- competition and self interest can lead to economic prosperity
Jean Jacques Rosseau- promoted political and legal equality for all. Wanted to end special privileges for elites
Thomas Paine's pamphlet Common Sense that urged American independence.
argued that in the physical world, the smaller body never ruled the larger one.
no respect for the king and called him the "Royal Brute of Great Britain."
time had come to break away, it was just common sense.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
broken down into four parts: (1) a preamble or introduction, (2) a statement of rights, (3) a list of grievances, and (4) a statement of separation.
The "statement of rights" (based on John Locke's "natural rights") might be the most important. It included "unalienable rights" (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) and that "all men are created equal."
The Declaration made things clear: (a) the Americans were no longer loyal to the king (b) it opened the door for foreign help, and (c) the Americans had to win the war else face punishment for treason (death).
Enlightenment- challenged traditional authority
Articles of Confederation
the "1rst Constitution"
create a weak centralized government
power mainly resided with the states
Problems with the Articles
Spain restrictions on Mississippi River
Spain & Britain aiding Native American attacks
each state could coin its own money
no executive or judicial branch
no power to collect taxes
Shays Rebellion- farmers revolt over taxes and foreclosures, emphasized the need for a stronger constitution ( note Whiskey Rebellion emphasize stronger constitution is working)
New Jersey Plan
The Great Compromise or Connecticut Compromise
The 3/5ths Compromise
New Constitution is based on federalism & division of powers
Federalist versus Anti federalist and the Bill of Rights
Thomas Jefferson and the Jeffersonian Democratic Republicans
favor weak central government
Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions
strict interpretation of the constitution
Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists
favor strong central government
favor high tariffs
loose interpretation of the constitution & the elastic clause
pro - Business
creation of the National Bank & passing of Alien & Sedition Acts
Pennsylvania Gradual Emancipation Law- set the stage for other northern states to follow
Abigail Adams- set the stage for women's rights movement
Framers allowing for slavery in the Constitution would set the stage for the Civil War
Latin Americas will gain independence from
Key Concept 3.3: Migration within North America, cooperative interaction, and competition for resources raised questions about boundaries and policies, intensified conflicts among peoples and nations, and led to contests over the creation of a multiethnic, multiracial national identity.
I. As migrants streamed westward from the British colonies along the Atlantic seaboard, interactions among different groups that would continue under an independent United States resulted in competition for resources, shifting alliances, and cultural blending.
A. The French withdrawal from North America and the subsequent attempt of various native groups to reassert their power over the interior of the continent resulted in new white–Indian conflicts along the western borders of British and, later, the U.S. colonial settlement and among settlers looking to assert more power in interior regions.
B. Migrants from within North America and around the world continued to launch new settlements in the West, creating new distinctive backcountry cultures and fueling social and ethnic tensions.
C. The Spanish, supported by the bonded labor of the local Indians, expanded their mission settlements into California, providing opportunities for social mobility among enterprising soldiers and settlers that led to new cultural blending.
II. The policies of the United States that encouraged western migration and the orderly incorporation of new territories into the nation both extended republican institutions and intensified conflicts among American Indians and Europeans in the trans-Appalachian West.
A. As settlers moved westward during the 1780s, Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance for admitting new states and sought to promote public education, the protection of private property, and the restriction of slavery in the Northwest Territory.
B. The Constitution’s failure to precisely define the relationship between American Indian tribes and the national government led to problems regarding treaties and Indian legal claims relating to the seizure of Indian lands.
C. As western settlers sought free navigation of the Mississippi River, the United States forged diplomatic initiatives to manage the conflict with Spain and to deal with the continued British presence on the American continent.
III. New voices for national identity challenged tendencies to cling to regional identities, contributing to the emergence of distinctly American cultural expressions.
A. As national political institutions developed in the new United States, varying regionally based positions on economic, political, social, and foreign policy issues promoted the development of political parties.
B. The expansion of slavery in the lower South and adjacent western lands, and its gradual disappearance elsewhere, began to create distinctive regional attitudes toward the institution.
C. Enlightenment ideas and women’s experiences in the movement for independence promoted an ideal of “republican motherhood,” which called on white women to maintain and teach republican values within the family and granted women a new importance in American political culture.
once a territory reached a certain size it could apply for statehood - 60,000
slavery was closed to this territory
portion of land sales would fund education
Constitution did not say anything about Native Americans
Resulted in bad treaties and encroachment by settlers
US would pay debts owed to British
British would abandon its forts (they did not)
British would pay impressment damages ( still impressed)
War would be avoided until 1812
JDR's became angered
Spain was worried over British alliance with US
gave safe passage of Mississippi River
North- abolished slavery, typically Federalist and merchants, urban
South- proslavery, very important because Cotton had become King of the South and the labor force was need, typically JDR's and farmers, rural
See Previous Slide
See Previous Slide
belief that it was the mothers job to teach their child to be a good citizen
many women felt that they were called to be a teacher
See Treaty of Greenville slide
XYZ Affair- France
Spanish begin their push back into the Southwest since the Pueblo Revolt of 1680
See Paxton Boys slide