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Montgomery, Alamama and Alexandra, South Africa Bus Boycotts

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Megan Kerrigan

on 7 October 2016

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Transcript of Montgomery, Alamama and Alexandra, South Africa Bus Boycotts

Bus Boycott in Montgomery, Alabama and in Alexandra, South Africa
Alexandra, South Africa
Leading Causes
In 1955, African American's were required, by law, to sit in the back of the bus and give up their seats for white people in Montgomery Alabama.
Aftermath
On June 5th, 1956, the Montgomery federal court ruled that bus segregation laws were against the 14th amendment.
Martin Luther King Jr.
On the day the boycott began, December 5th, a 26-year-old-pastor, Martin Luther King Jr. was elected president of the Montgomery Improvement Association.
The Start of A Boycott
In 1957, the Public Utility Transport Corporation (PUTCO) in South Africa raised the bus fare from 4d to 5d for commuters in Johannesburg taking the bus.
80 percent of Johannesburg Africans lived in poverty, so the raise was far more than the Africans could afford.
On 7 January, 1957, Africans in Alexandra launched a bus boycott. "Azikhwelwa!" ( We shall not ride!) was the rallying cry as they walked the 22 miles from Alexandra to Johannesburg to get to work
Goals:
Get rid of the bus fare increase,
Demand the government to make a study regarding the need for higher wages for Africans.
Reactions
The public reacted sympathetic toward the boycotters. White motorists sometimes helped the boycotters by providing them with rides to destinations.
The police responded to the white motorists with harassment. The police would stop cars & search them. Also, they demanded licenses, took down names, required passes from the riders.
Toward the boycotters, the police would stop them to check for passes, arrested them on minor charges, such as crossing an intersection at a red light, and deflated the tires to make the African workers late to work.
Oliver Tambo, the African National Congress leader, and Nelson Mandela, the ANC deputy leader, sent messages of encouragement to the boycotters.
Although the boycott had initially started as a response to the raise in the bus fare, the campaign soon addressed the need to be regarded as equals spread.
"When we are too tired, we will stay home and rest." The boycotters, who were encouraged to remain at home if they grew too tired. This worried places that African Americans worked.
Compromise:
The boycotters purchased bus tickets that were stamped as 5d even though the boycotters had only paid 4d.
The solution was reached at the end of June as the government inducted a Bill in Parliament. This Bill meant that the boycotters could ride the buses at the old fare of 4d instead of the raised fare.
This solution was not only an economic victory, but a political one as well.
The boycott was an example to the country as it proved two things: that protests against the national government could be successful and that the black South African boycotters were much more powerful than had been previously perceived.
Connections
Since one boycott took place in America and the other in South Africa, one can conclude that racism between blacks and whites were/are prevalent.
Montgomery, Alabama

Connections to South Africa
By: Megan Kerrigan
&
Hannah Sliwa

Bibliography
https://spfaust.wordpress.com/2011/08/27/mlk-memorial-out-of-the-mountain-of-despair-a-stone-of-hope/
How it ended
http://www.ducksters.com/history/civil_rights/montgomery_bus_boycott.php
http://30237473.weebly.com/montgomery-bus-boycott.html
What Occurred
On December 1st, a woman, named Rosa Parks, refused to give up her seat; She was arrested and fined.
E.D. Nixon, a black leader and friend of Rosa Parks, bailed her out and decided that her incident could start an action against segregation.
The Women's Political Council called for a boycott of the buses on December 5th, the day Rosa Parks would be tried.
Initially, African Americans boycotted for courtesy, hiring of African American drivers, and a first-come, first-seated policy.
African Americans didn't demand the elimination of segregation on buses until 5 women sued the city, due to bus segregation laws.
In order to ensure the boycott held until the demands were met, African Americans carpooled, walked, and black taxi drivers changed the far to 10 cents. Leaders also held meetings to keep everyone focused.
After 381 days, the boycott ended and buses were integrated on December 21st, 1956
Angry citizens shot up buses and bombed black leaders' houses. Seven bombers, who were members of the Ku Klux Klan, were arrested.
http://www.gafollowers.com/things-your-school-didnt-teach-about-martin-luther-king/
Martin Luther King promoted nonviolent protests.
After the boycott, he helped create the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, which worked to end segregation in the South.
In August 1963, during the March on Washington, King delivered his notorious "I Have a Dream" speech.
http://www.history.com/topics/black-history/montgomery-bus-boycott
(
Montgomery Bus Boycott
2010)
During the boycott in Alexandra, civilians helped one another, while police and government officials were harsh. This shows that in South Africa, there is a tension between civilians and the government.
More Info
http://nvdatabase.swarthmore.edu/content/south-africans-successfully-boycott-buses-johannesburg-1957
https://johanfourie.wordpress.com/tag/bankruptcy/
Since in both cases the people got what they wanted by the government, it shows that African Americans voices were starting to be heard.
Since the government wanted the African Americans to ride the bus so bad, it shows how important they were.
Works Cited


Faust, By Coronare Modestus. "MLK Memorial — Out Of The Mountain Of Despair, A Stone Of Hope." Faustian UrGe. N.p., 2011. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.



"Civil Rights." For Kids: Montgomery Bus Boycott. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.

http://v1.sahistory.org.za/pages/library-resources/onlinebooks/Luli/Place-in-the-city/Unit2/unit2.htm

"Montgomery Bus Boycott." Edgar Daniel Nixon: The Leader of the Civil Rights Movement. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.

http://gomtownmag.co.za/?p=639

History.com Staff. "Montgomery Bus Boycott." History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2010. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.


"Civil Rights." For Kids: Montgomery Bus Boycott. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.


"Global Nonviolent Action Database." South Africans Successfully Boycott Buses in Johannesburg, 1957. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.
N/A N/A. "Facts about Alexandra Township." GOMTOWN. GOMTOWN TEAM, 2 May 2015. Web. 4 Oct. 2016.
1940, Naboth By. "Luli." Luli. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.
Johan Fourie's. "Johan Fourie's Blog." Johan Fouries Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Oct. 2016.
All Data is from the
Global Nonviolent Action Database.
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