Transcript of World War 1
World War 1 Timeline 1870 War broke out between Prussia and France. It was known as the Franco-Prussian War Prussia was a kingdom consisted of today's Russia, Belgium, Denmark, Poland, Lithuania and large part of Germany It happened due to the previous Napoleonic wars. In those wars, France had lost. Because of these defeats, Prussia was gradually interfering in France's politics. As the French didn't want anymore of that to happen, they declared war on Prussia on the 19th of June to gain their power back. 1871 On the 10th of May, Prussia won the war by the siege of Paris. The French Third Republic replaced the previous Second French Empire. The treaty of Frankfurt was signed. The treaty included giving Alsace Lorraine, other villages, and some of the cities to Prussia. Also, the French had to pay five billion francs in the maximum of five years. In the meantime, Prussian troops would be occupying parts of France to supervise This also marked the unification of Germany (It was no longer called Prussia). This was because the small countries that had helped Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War felt insecure, and wanted protection from the powerful ones. This led to tension as it is seen to other countries as an act of combining power and joining forces, which might be the signal of the start of a war. It would also make other countries more alert to any signs of threat. 1848 The Hungarian Revolution started It happened because the countries did not want interference anymore. Also, they were not satisfied at how the Austrian empire treated them. Besides, the Empire had not done a good job in solving problems and conflicts This led to tension because if other countries that wanted freedom saw this, they might follow the Hungarian countries and rebel against their empire. So, this would make war start and countries such as Russia would have the urge to help the Serbs as they share the same ancestry. Countries that are allied with Russia would feel the necessity to help too, making the whole situation a lot more complicated. The Austria-Hungary empire consisted of modern day Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic , Hungary, Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine. 1900 Around 1900, the British and French empire were the largest and second largest empire respectively. They had owned together about a third of the world. In fact Britain was so powerful that it was known "the sun never sets on the British Empire" This led to tension as other countries would be jealous of them, making themselves feel inferior. This would mean that other countries might compete with them over empires, creating conflicts and arguments. 1908 Austria legally occupied Bosnia, but against permission of the rest of the European Countries, it annexed it. (Marking it as part of the Austria-Hungary empire) It is known as the Bosnian Crisis. 1878 The Russo-Turkish war is ended by the Treaty of Berlin It was signed by Britian, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and Turkey It was agreed that Romania, Serbia and Montenegro had their freedom to remain independent. Also, Bosnia was to remain in the Ottoman Empire, though Austria-Hungary have the rights to occupy and control it. The countries in the Ottoman Empire wanted freedom and independence. Russia had promised to aid them. This resulted in the Empire's anger, so war was declared. It was known as the Russo-Turkish war. A few countries managed to obtain liberty and Russia succeeded in claiming a few countries as its own. This marked the beginning of the declination of Ottoman Empire. This led to controversies, and that although the Bosnian didn't like this, they had no power to change their fate. This angered the Serbs as they had wanted to join with Bosnia. This was because they wanted to gain access to the sea, in order to enhance trade and gain wealth from it. They also feared that Austria would take them next, so they could not have independence. This led to tension as it created dislike amongst countries. It also made the Ottoman Empire dislike Russia as the latter did not help them. The Ottoman Empire might want revenge and another war could break out, getting more countries involved. 1888 The start of the reign of Germany's last King-Kaiser Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert Kaiser Wilhelm 2 was the King of Germany and Prussia from 1888 to 1918, granchild of Queen Victoria. He was inter-related to many different kings or queens in Europe. He was married to Princess Augusta Viktoria of Schleswig-Holstein, and had 7 children. As he was raised in a family that considered military important, he always resorted to using military in order to resolve conflicts. Though he had a withered arm at his birth, he carefully concealed it, or he thought it would damage his image of a powerfyl and strong person. He had forced Otto Von Bismark-founder of Germany to resign, confident that he himself could lead a country without help. In his reign he had competed with England in aspects such as naval power and empires. His aim was to have Germany in control of the whole world and have its place in the sun. This was known as Weltpolitik. This created tension as England would feel that its power is being thwarted, and that they should build more navies too in order to be more superior. This would also affect Britain and France's nationalism, as they were presently at the top of the world, controlling most places. This would make people want war against Germany to prove that their country is still the best and the boss. So, war is likely to break out and people would get involved to show the power of their own country. 1871 As the result of the defeat of France in the Franco-Prussian war, the French had decided to built forts along their borders to avoid any more attacks. This led to tension as it may seem to other countries that France is secretly preparing for a battle or foresaw a battle coming. So, they would believe the French troops are ready to either defense or invade. This would cause terror amongst countries and everyone would get their troops prepared too. This may lead to war because if everyone's troops are ready, it would be easy for another country to swiftly attack others without warning or signs. 1882 Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy formed a triple alliance It was agreed that if one or more of these countries are in danger, they must help each other out. It was a defensive alliance, which means the rules apply only if they were attacked, and not the attacker. This would lead to tension as other countries not involved in the alliance would think that they are conspiring to attack them. This pressurize other countries to form alliances to prevent from being defeated too. 1907 Britain, France and Russia formed the triple entente. This entente was made because they felt pressurized by the triple alliances. However, this entente did not force countries to help each other out. Its aim was merely to surround Germany to prevent it from declaring war. This led to tension as there are now 2 opposing forces, which could easily develop the situation into war. Also, as it seems that most countries are preparing for war, others would tend to follow suit, increasing the chance of war. 1909 1908 Regarding the annexation of Bosnia, Russia promised to protect Serbia from Austria if the latter attacks them. The reason why Russia wants to protect them is because they were both originated from the Slavic tribes. Also, Russia wanted the Mediterranean climate so that they could grow crops and earn more money (Russia is too far north to grow good crops). This led to tension because it would be hard for Austria to get Serbia as they would have Russia to answer to. Also, now that Russia and Austria became enemies, they might try to attack each other for revenge. They would also get prepared for battle so that if one attacks, the other still have the chance to fight back. With all these military preparation, other countries would feel tension. 28th July 1914 28th June 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria visited Bosnia, but was killed by a group of terrorist, supported by Serbia. Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austria-Hungary throne. He was murdered with a bullet in his neck. He had great military achievements, which includes him becoming major general at the age of 31. He was married to Countess Sophie Chotek, though the marriage was not whole-heartedly approved by his family as she did not have royal blood. He was said to be "a man of uninspired energy, dark in appearance and emotion, who radiated an aura of strangeness and cast a shadow of violence and recklessness ... a true personality amidst the amiable inanity that characterized Austrian society at this time." On the 28th of June 1914, Archduke Ferdinand decided to visit Sarejero, Bosnia. However, 6 teenager terrorists, lead by their leader Danilo Ilic plotted to kill him. This was because they are not happy with the fact that Austria took Bosnia against the rule and are worried that they might take Serbia as well. So, they decided to stand at Appel Quay, where the Archduke was sure to pass, and distanced themselves in order increase the chance of killing him. At 10:15 am, the Archduke's car passed the 1st terrorist (Mehmedbasic), though he backed up and ran away. When the car passed the 2nd terrorist (Cabriolvic), the same thing happened. Eventually, the 3rd terrorist (Cabrinovic) managed to throw a bomb at him. However, it bounced off away from the car and exploded on the street, wounding around 20 people.Meanwhile, the 4th, 5th and the 6th terrorist heard the bomb, so they thought their mission was accomplished. They left. By this time, the Archduke knew something was serious, so he ordered the driver to speed up to his destination-the town hall. He decided to abandon his original plan and go visit the wounded crowd at the hospital instead, though traveling another way to avoid assassination. Unfortunately, the driver drove the wrong way, and drove into Franz Josef Street. The driver stopped the car, and attempted to turn around. Coincidentally, another terrorist Gavrilo Princip was on that road too. He realized that the Archduke was not killed. Because the car turned really slowly, Princip seized the chance, went up to the car and fired to shots. One shot hit the Archduke's neck and one bullet hit the car and bounced into his wife Sophie's stomach. They both died within 20 minutes and Princip was arrested and put into jail, along with the other members of the group. Only Ilic was hanged, though Princip died shortly after, in 1918. Austria-Hungary demanded that Serbia should be responsible for the consequences and that they should hand them the names of the terrorists. Serbia refused the demand of Austria-Hungary, so Count Berchtold decided to declared war. This marked the START OF WORLD WAR 1. This led to tension because if Serbia refuses to do as Austria demands, it serves as an excuse for Austria to declare war. If that happens, Russia would get involved as they had promised to defend Serbia. Germany would also get involved because of the triple alliance. Eventually, almost every country in Europe would be in war due to the treaties and alliances. Therefore, every country would get themselves prepared, adding tension. Count Schlieffen devised a plan called The Schlieffen Plan The aim of The Schlieffen Plan was to enable Germany to fight 2 countries in a limited amount of time. They had presumed that Russia needed 6 weeks to get their army prepared, so in the meantime, Germany could quickly defeat France by sending their troops through Belgium. After that, they could hurry back to defend their eastern border. 1905 This lead to tension as Belgium would think that Germany wants to attack them, so they would get prepared and Britain would help them too (It was because of the London Treaty in 1839). This would make the situation a lot more complicated than what the Germans think. *Special Info:Full transcript
In the end, this plan didn't work. They had met serious difficulty in defeating France as the Belgium army put up a great defense, delaying their army. Also, Britain declared war on Germany as they had promised to help Belgium. In the meantime, French troops were well organised due to their advanced railway system. At last, Germany was forced to retreat. 1912 The start of the reign of Count Leopold Berchtold, the Austrian Prime Minister Count Leopold Berchtold was born in 18th April 1863 in a wealthy family. He was previously the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Russia. With the death of the formoer Austrian Prime Minister Count Lexa von Aehrenthal in 1912, his 49 years old self took up the job. He was very important in the start of World War 1. He had participated in the Balkan wars, which developed his desire to have a war against Serbia. 1909 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollreg became the Chancellor of Germany. Theobald von Bethmann-Hollreg was born in 1856. His family members were scholars and bankers, so education was very important. He has participated in the arouse of conflicts in World War 1. Though he was in a very powerful position, people did not agree with him most the time, leading to his resignation in 1917. In 1914, he had encouraged war between Austria and Serbiaby deleting the last line of a British letter: "Also, the whole world here is convinced, and I hear from my colleagues that the key to the situation lies in Berlin, and that if Berlin seriously wants peace, it will prevent Vienna from following a foolhardy policy."In 1917, he supported the Unrestricted Submarine Warfare. This angered the US, making them join in the war, siding with the allies. This led to tension because Germany is meddling with important messages, making countries unsure of the intentions of others. This means that they could only guess, and that their trust for Germany would decrease. So, countries would get ready for war just in case Germany meddles again and they would miss the signal for war. They would also be angry at Germany, so war might be likely to start to stop Germany from spreading false infomation.