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Chapter 5: Styles and Strategies
Transcript of Chapter 5: Styles and Strategies
Field dependence-independence (Cont.)
In general, it has been observed that people who lean toward FI are more analytical, self-confident and competitive. FD people are more social and empathetic.
In SLA, FI students tend to do better with drills, exercises, tests, and so on.
FD students perform better in the communicative aspects of language learning.
Current classroom environments tend to favor FI students.
It is important to note that the author believes both FI and FD styles are important for second language acquisition
Cognitive, affective and physiological traits that are relatively stable indicators of how learners perceive, interact with, and respond to the learning environment.
General predisposition toward processing information in a particular way.
Process, styles, and strategies
specific methods of approaching a problem or task
techniques we employ to solve "problems" posed by second language acquisition
often conscious and goal driven
two types of strategies:
relate to the processing, storage, and retrieval of input.
Maria L. Caiseda
Left- and Right-brain Dominance
Ambiguity Tolerance and Intolerance
Reflectivity and Impulsivity
Visual, auditory, and kinesthetic styles
Autonomy, awareness, and action
pertain to output, or how we productively express meaning.
Syntactic or lexical avoidance
The learner avoids using a specific lexical term.
The learner avoids using difficult words due to their pronunciation.
The learner avoid a whole topic or concepts that pose language difficulties.
The learner uses memorized stock-phrases.
The learner uses first or third language while speaking in the second language.
Appeal to authority
The learner asks either directly or indirectly for help.
- characteristic of every human being. Stimulus based response connections driven by reinforcement. Association, meaningful and rote storage, transfer, generalization and interference.
- term that refers to consistent and enduring preferences within an individual. They differentiate us from others and thus vary across individuals.
- specific methods of approaching a problem or task. "Specific actions, behaviors, steps or techniques...used by students to enhance their own learning." (Oxford & Ehrman)
Field independence (FI)
- The ability to discern a relevant item in a field of distracting items.
Field dependence (FD)
- The ability to more clearly see the field as a unified whole.
Strong correlation to FI and FD learning styles.
Left brain is more analytical, right brain is more emotional, but the two are not meant to be mutually exclusive.
In fact, the best solutions to most problems are those where both hemispheres have participated optimally.
Still, some language instructors tend to lean to one side or the other.
Left-brain learners are better at producing separate words, carrying out sequences, and dealing with labeling.
Right-brain learners are better with whole images, generalizations, metaphors, and artistic expressions.
- being open to new ideas or concepts that may contradict one's belief system. In other words, accepting the shades of grey. Too much of this may make someone 'wishy-washy.'
- rejecting new ideas, especially those that contradict one's belief system. Seeing things in black and white. Can be beneficial in preventing the aforementioned wishy-washiness, but is generally detrimental (if slightly so) to SLA.
- the person thinks about the problem, weighs all the options, and calculates all the possibilities before giving an answer. In SLA, they are slower and remain longer in a given semi-grammatical stage.
- the person is more willing to guess at or gamble with the answer to a problem. They may get more incorrect responses, but rapidly transition through the semi-grammatical stages in SLA
Preference for reading, studying charts, drawings, and other graphic information
Preference for lectures and audiotapes.
Preference for demonstrations and physical activities involving bodily movement.
Known as the three A's of learner development.
- The student 'takes charge' of their own language learning. Teachers can promote autonomy by initiating oral production, practicing in pairs, and group activities. WARNING: Cultural sensitivity must be used when implementing autonomy in different places.
- knowledge and understanding of one's own learning process. Meta-cognitive awareness has proven beneficial in the language acquisition process.
- the application of one's awareness through the plethora of strategies available.
Were divided into three categories-
SBI is the application of both learning and communication strategies to classroom learning.
Steps and considerations for SBI in language classrooms
identify learners' styles and potential strategies
incorporate SBI in communicative language courses
provide extra-class assistance for learners
Identifying Learners' Styles and Strategies
Most common method is a self-check questionnaire where the learner responds to various questions usually along a scale of point of agreement or disagreement.
Other forms of identifying styles and strategies-
self-reports through interview
written diaries and journals
Although it is useful to expose learners to different possibilities, it is still the teacher's responsibility to aid learners put strategies into practice.
in the Language Classroom
Highlights for good language learning
1. lower inhibitions
2. encourage risk taking
3. build self-confidence
4. develop intrinsic motivation
5. engage in cooperative learning
6. use right-brain processes
7. promote ambiguity
8. practice intuition
9. process error feedback
10. set personal goals
"Good" Language Learners
1- find their own way, taking charge of their learning
2- organize information about language
3- are creative, developing a feel for the language by experimenting with its grammar and words.
4- make their own opportunities for practice in using the language inside the classroom.
5- learn to live with uncertainty by not getting flustered and by continuing to talk or listen without understanding every word.
6- use mnemonics and other memory strategies to recall what has been learned.
7- make errors work for them and not against them.
8- use linguistic knowledge, including knowledge of their first language in learning a second language.
9- use contextual cues to help them in comprehension.
10.learn to make intelligent guesses.
11. learn chunks of language as wholes and formalized routines to help them perform "beyond their competence".
12. learn certain tricks that help to keep conversations going.
13. learn certain production strategies to fill in gaps in their own competence.
14. learn different styles of speech and writing and learn to vary their language according to the formality of the situation.
Through checklist test and interview, teachers can become aware of student tendencies and then offer advice on beneficial in class and extra class strategies.
Teachers can embed strategy awareness and practice into their pedagogy as they utilize such techniques as communicative games, rapid reading, fluency exercises and error analysis, teachers can help students both consciously and subconsciously to practice successful strategies.
Textbooks include strategy instruction as part of content centered approach.
Three ways of incorporating SBI in the language classroom
Metacognitive strategies involve planning for learning,
thinking about the learning process, monitoring of one's production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after
an activity is completed.
cognitive strategies are limited to specific learning tasks and involve more direct manipulation of
the learning material itself.
socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating
activity and interacting with others.