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AP Psychology - Unit 7B
Transcript of AP Psychology - Unit 7B
Creativity, and Language Thinking Cognition refers to all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Cognitive Psychologists study these, activities, including the logical and sometimes illogical ways in which we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions, and form judgements.
We use concepts, mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, or people, to simplify and order the world around us. (example: triangles, by definition (three-sided objects)
By creating hierarchies, we subdivide these categories into smaller and more detailed units.
Prototypes are mental images or best examples that incorporate all the features we associate with a category. Solving Problems Obstacles in Problem Solving An algorithm is a time-consuming but thorough set of rules or procedures (such as a step-by-step description for evacuating a building during a fire) that guarantees a solution to a problem.
A heuristic is a simpler thinking strategy (such as running for an exit if you smell smoke) that may allow us to solve a problem more quickly, but sometimes leads us to incorrect solutions.
Insight is not a strategy based-based solution, but rather a sudden flash of inspiration that solves a problem. Confirmation bias is an obstacle to problem solving in which we are predisposed to verify rather than challenge our hypotheses.
Fixation such as mental set and functional fixedness may prevent us from taking the fresh perspective that would let us solve the problem.
Mental set is a tendency to approach a problem in one particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past.
Functional fixedness is the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving. Creativity Creativity is the ability to produce ideas that are both novel and valuable.
Robert Sternberg identified 5 components of creativity:
1. Expertise, a well-developed base of knowledge furnishes the ideas, images, and phrases we use as mental building blocks.
2. Imaginative thinking skills that provide the ability to see things in novel ways, to recognize patterns, and to make connections.
3. A venturesome personality that seeks new experiences, tolerates ambiguity and risk, a perseveres in overcoming obstacles.
4. Intrinsic motivation is being driven by interest, satisfaction, and challenge than by external pressures.
5. A creative environment that sparks, supports, and refines creative ideas. Forming Decisions & Judgements When making decisions we usually just follow our intuition, an effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning.
Representative heuristic is judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
Availability heuristic is estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instance comes readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
Overconfidence is the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments.
Belief perseverance is the clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
Framing is the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. Intuition's Dozen Deadly Sins 1. Hindsight Bias
2. Illusory Correlation
3. Memory Construction
4. Representativeness & Availability Heuristics
6. Belief Perseverance & Confirmation Bias
8. Interviewers Illusion
9. Mispredicting our own feelings
10. Self-Serving Bias
11. Fundamental Attribution Theory
12. Mispredicting our own behavior Evidence of Intuition's Powers 1. Blindsight
2. Right-brain Thinking
3. Infant's Intuitive Learning
4. Moral Intuition
5. Divided Attention & Priming
6. Everyday Perception
7. Automatic Processing
8. Implicit Memory
10. Intuitive Expertise
12. Social & Emotional Intelligence
13. The Wisdom of The Body
14. Thin Slices
15. Dual Attitude System Language Language is our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Phonemes in a language are the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Linguists have identified 869 different phonemes in human speech
Example of a phoneme: chat - ch, a, and t.
No language uses all the phonemes. English uses 40; other languages anywhere from half to more than twice that many.
Morphemes in a language are the smallest unit that carries meaning, may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix).
In English, a few morphemes are also phonemes - the personal pronoun I.
Morphemes include prefixes and suffixes, such as the pre- in preview or the -ed that shows past tense.
Grammar in a language is a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others.
Semantics is a set of rules we use to derive meaning from a morphemes, words, and even sentences.
Syntax refers to the rules we use to order words into sentences.
In English syntax the adjective usually comes before nouns, so we say white house. In Spanish syntax adjectives usually reverse this order, as in casa blanca. Language Development Timing varies from one child to another, but all children follow the same sequence.
At about 4 months of age, infants babble (babbling stage), making sounds from languages found all around the world.
By about 10 months, babbling only contains sounds found in their household language.
At around 12 months of age, children begin to speak in single words. Also known as the one-word stage
Little before age 2 children begin speaking in two-word (telegraphic) utterances.
After age 2 they begin speaking in full sentences. Explaining Language Development Behaviorist B. F. Skinner proposed that we learn language by the familiar principles of association (of sights of things with sounds and words), imitation (of words and syntax modeled by others), and reinforcement (with smiles and hugs after saying something right).
Linguist Noam Chomsky argues that we are born with a language acquisition device that biologically prepares us to learn language and that equips us with a universal grammar, which we use to learn a specific language.
Cognitive researchers believe childhood is a critical period for learning spoken and signed language. Thinking & Language Linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf contended that language determines the way we think.
According to Whorf's linguistic determinism hypothesis, different languages impose different conceptions of reality.
An example of linguistic determinism is the Hopi, who Whorf noted, had no past tense for their verbs, therefore they could not readily think about the past.
Words may not determine what we think, but they do influence our thinking.
Bilingual children, who learn to inhibit one language while using the other, are also better to inhibit their attention to irrelevant information. Thinking in Images We often think in images when we use implicit (nondeclarative, procedural) memory - our unconscious memory system for motor and cognitive skills and classically and operantly conditioned associations.
Thinking in images can increase our skills when we mentally practice upcoming events. THE END! By Rolando Muñoz & Megan Horne