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Diffusion and Osmosis

Senior Science Final Project
by

Brittnee Haynes

on 4 June 2013

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Transcript of Diffusion and Osmosis

Diffusion and Osmosis Lily Hailemichael & Brittnee Haynes The Cell Membrane Head -Hydrophilic due to saturated fats Tail -Hydrophobic due to -Fluid Mosaic Model: the membrane is a mosaic of proteins that are embedded in the phospholipids -Membrane is not static -Two regions of the membrane unsaturated fat Small, hydrophobic, and nonpolar molecules can cross the membrane relatively easily Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Selectively Permeable Membrane proteins help these molecules cross the membrane Membrane Proteins Functions Types -Transport

-Enzymatic activity

-Signal transduction

-Cell communication

-Cell-to-cell contact & attachment -Adhesion proteins

-Communicator proteins

-Receptor proteins

-Recognition proteins

-Transport proteins

-Integral proteins

-Peripheral proteins Passive Transport Diffusion Facilitated Diffusion -Tendency of molecules to move from a higher concentration to a lower concentration -Does not require energy -Net movement of like molecules or ions down their concentration gradient -Diffusion across a biological membrane with the aid of transport proteins Active Transport -Movement against concentration gradient
-Requires energy (ATP)
-Specific membrane proteins used in active transport Osmosis -Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
-Always takes place from hypotonic to hypertonic Examples of Pumps -Calcium pump -Sodium-potassium pump [OUTSIDE OF CELL] [INSIDE OF CELL] The inside of the cell is hypertonic with respect to the outside of the cell. In animal cells, the result is crenation In plant cells, the result is plasmolysis [OUTSIDE OF CELL] [INSIDE OF CELL] Hypertonic - solution with higher solute concentration The inside of the cell is hypotonic with respect to the outside of the cell. If an animal cell, the cell will lyse. If a plant cell, the cell will be turgid. Hypotonic - solution with lower solute concentration [INSIDE OF CELL] [OUTSIDE OF CELL] The inside of the cell is isotonic with respect to the outside of the cell. Isotonic - solution with equal solute concentration Dynamic equilibrium is when the net distribution of molecules is nearly uniform in two adjoining regions Other Types of Movement Factors that Effect the Rate of Diffusion -Temperature

-Type of molecule

-Size of molecule and pore

-Surface area of membrane

-Pressure gradient

-Electric gradient

-Steepness

-Thickness of membrane Endocytosis Phagocytosis "cell eating" Pinocytosis "cell drinking" Exocytosis cell takes in molecules via vesicles which fuse with membrane fusion of vesicles and molecules with membrane to secrete materials Questions? Large molecules and charged molecules undergo selective permeability HYPERTONIC HYPOTONIC ISOTONIC
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