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A Comma Story

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by

Tiffany Chen

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of A Comma Story

by Tiffany Chen, Kelvin Lu, and Nisha Ramesh A Comma Story Commas After Introductions Nonessential (Non-restrictive) Elements Once upon a time... General Rules Types of Introductory Elements Introductory Clauses Introductory Words Introductory Phrases Dependent clauses
Provide background information
Start with: after, although, as, because, before, if, since, though, until, when, etc. Provide background information
Not complete clauses
Include: prepositional, appositive, participial, infinitive, absolute Commas are used after them
Include: however, still, furthermore, meanwhile, etc. Commas ARE Used: After all introductory clauses
After long/multiple introductory prepositional phrases
After introductory verbal phrases, non-restrictive appositive phrases, or absolute phrases. Commas ARE NOT Used: After brief prepositional phrases (less than five words)
After restrictive appositive phrases Can be removed without changing overall meaning of sentence
Use commas to set them apart from the rest of sentence
"Which" elements Essential (Restrictive) Elements Important to the overall meaning of the sentence
Not set apart by commas
"That" elements Commas Vs. Semicolons Commas Semicolons Used when two independent clauses are linked with:
no connecting words
conjunctive adverbs Pop Quiz! Pop Quiz! Commas With Nonessential/Essential Elements USE Commas To separate independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions To separate three or more elements in a series To separate contrasted coordinate elements/indicate distinct pause or shift To set off "free modifiers" To set off a quotation To separate two or more coordinate adjectives that describe the same noun To set off geographical names, items in dates, addresses, and titles in names
USE COMMAS WHEREVER NECESSARY TO PREVENT CONFUSION Used when two independent clauses are linked by coordinating conjunctions Pop Quiz! 1. Jethro lost his coat on a cold windy rainy day. DO NOT USE Commas To separate the subject from the predicate

EX: Mr. G, is an excellent teacher. Between verbs in a compound predicate Between nouns in a compound subject or object

EX: Jethro, and the dog became best friends.

Jethro ate burgers and fries. When a dependent (subordinate) clause follows a main clause (unless there is extreme contrast) Between two independent clauses. This is known as a COMMA SPLICE.

EX: Jethro spent a lot of time with his dog, he was still very lonely. Place commas where needed. If no comma is needed, explain why. 1. After the fight Jethro crawled painfully to the hospital. Identify the type of introductory element, and place commas where needed. If no comma is needed, explain why. 1. The hooligan who was behind the convenience store helped Jethro find a suitable cardboard box. State whether the elements are essential or nonessential. Then, place commas where needed. Place commas or semicolons where needed. 4. Jethro’s hat was orange and his shirt was brown. In the book, Nectar in a Sieve, Rukmani is a noble character. She endures through many hardships with her husband Nathan, however she rarely breaks down and she perseveres through her troubled times. When Kunthi gives birth to her first son Rukmani is there to help her even though she is pregnant herself. She cares for Nathan, and for her children. She is hardworking and dedicated; yet also humble. Rukmani never complains, when misfortunes hit her. After the monsoon hits her village she shows no signs of self-pity or extreme depression. The daughter of a village chieftain Rukmani only complains a little when she marries Nathan. Because Rukmani possesses these traits she is a noble character. Examples PREPOSITIONAL: Before the garbage man came, I scoured the trash bins for food. APPOSITIVE: Rotted and half-eaten, my lunch was inedible even for the alley rats. PARTICIPIAL: Growling violently, my stomach told me that I needed to get food. INFINITIVE: To keep from passing out, I desperately searched for food. ABSOLUTE: The meal furiously fighting its way up, I had to muster all of my will to avoid vomiting. independent clause independent clause coordinate adj. noun non-coordinate adj. noun date geographical name subject predicate compound predicate compound subject compound object dependent clause dependent clause main clause main clause independent clause independent clause Jethro spent a lot of time with his dog, but he was still very lonely. To separate the subject from the predicate Between nouns in a compound subject or object compound object main clause dependent clause Between two independent clauses. This is known as a COMMA SPLICE. independent clause independent clause coordinating conjunction EX: Jethro always slept in class, so he failed every test. EX: Mr. G hated lazy, sloppy, and sleepy students. EX: Jethro was a lazy, sloppy, sleepy student. Jethro was a lazy, English student. EX: Jethro was merely ignorant, not stupid. EX: On March 13, 2013, Jethro moved out of Fremont, California. EX: Jethro sat in a corner, crying grievously. EX: Jethro remembered his mother saying, "Commas are very important!" EX: Mr. G, is an excellent teacher. EX: Jethro sat at the desk, and dozed off. EX: Jethro, and the dog became best friends.

Jethro ate burgers, and fries. EX: Jethro watched the squirrel climb up the tree, while he ate. Jethro thought squirrels were cute, although he also thought they were quite scary. Jethro spent a lot of time with his dog, but he was still very lonely. EX: Jethro spent a lot of time with his dog, he was still very lonely. 2. Jethro got 1$ off a pasta box at the local thrift shop and also got a second one free. 3. Jethro found a nice mink jacket in the charity bin and he also got nice shoes to match with it. 4. “Hey” Jethro said “Didn’t I go to school with you?” EX: If you want to succeed in life, you need to know your commas. EX: A well-respected and intelligent man, Mr. G was an excellent teacher. EX: I may have epically messed up the first time. However, I am determined to set things right. 2. His stomach growling incessantly Jethro thought of cafeteria pizza. 3. Jethro was sleepy. However he had nowhere to sleep. 4. Growling fiercely the dog protected its food. EX: Jethro needs to get back to Mr. G's class, which will help get his life back together. EX: Jethro needs to get back to the class that will help get his life back together. EX: He can't even pass the class, but he still wants to succeed. EX: He can't even pass the class; he still wants to succeed.
He can't even pass the class; nevertheless, he still wants to succeed. 2. Jethro lost a pair of shoes which had a red lacing in the alleyway. 3. The worn-out speedo that had Jethro's favorite blue polka dot pattern on it was buried deep in the garbage pile. 5. Jethro drank his soup in less than a minute he gulped it down all at once. THE END , , , , , , , , essential essential nonessential , , , ; no commas needed no commas needed
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