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Bottled Water vs. Tap Water

Geography Inquiry - Resource
by

Tyler Van Schepdael

on 10 October 2012

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Transcript of Bottled Water vs. Tap Water

Tap Water Bottled Water Tyler Van Schepdael Frederick Sackey Our Question Which of the two, bottled or tap are the most preferred source of water by humans based on its sustainability and use in everyday life? Today we will be showing real facts and information to help you form your own opinion on which source is better. Let's begin by discussing how both forms of water are taken from the environment and processed for human consumption. Water Treatment Processes Bottled Public Preference Availability/Convenience Costs Impact on Public Impact on Economy Impact on Environment Conclusion • The process of producing bottled water begins by the extraction of the resource from different sources including wells, springs and municipal supplies. Where the water originates has a great effect on the amount available as well as the level of quality of a company’s water while ensuring the growth and maintenance of capitol. More money has to be spent to clean and refine the water if a higher quality is wanted. The source of the resource is chosen based on the organic and inorganic compounds contained in it. Types •Many people enjoy bottled water because of its variety. There are six major types of bottled water with different tastes and contents based on their source and the processes they undergo. • Spring: This kind of water is commonly used when it is taken from the ground after traveling to the earth’s surface. Human methods are also able to extract spring water through pipes. This type, unlike the others, is known to be bottled at the source since it is not contaminated but instead has a healthy amount of minerals. •Naturally Sparkling: Water removed from springs and artesian wells are known as naturally sparkling since they are carbonated due to their dissolved CO2. The result of this is the water having a fizzy taste. Today, carbonated water is made by running pressurized carbon dioxide through the liquid which in turn dissolves more gas than under standard temperature pressure by raising the solubility.
• Seltzer Water is in the soft drinks category as it is exactly the same as naturally sparkling since this one is carbonated as well. Process • As we have learned there are many types of bottled water so this means each kind is processed in a different way. However, they all go through certain steps that are mandatory to producing clean water. The only differences are the extra processes added to each that give the types their distinct taste. Here are the general steps for how bottled water is cleaned. Next we will talk about why some people prefer tap while others enjoy bottled water. • People prefer bottled water because they feel it is much cleaner and can be a replacement for other drinks. Also, its portability makes it easily convenient along with the fact that bottled water can be closed for future use. Its simple, lightweight, and durable design is why people use bottled water every day instead of heavy, metal bottles that have to be rewashed. This is the driving force for the product’s popularity as it makes our lives easier through its quick disposal. We are able to buy many in bulk at a low price so we don’t have to wash and refill them after each use. Many people feel bottled water has a better taste and purity however this may be personal preference since both tap and bottled can come from the same sources. Public Preference Bottled Tap Now it is time for the the availability and convenience of both. Tap Bottled •Tap water is not always available to people around the world. In some cases when it is, the drink is contaminated by pollution but deemed drinkable due to low regulations in underdeveloped countries. The cause of these flexible rules can be the lack of water in an area giving people no choice but to consume it for survival. Bottled water can be a great alternative since in these areas it is a much cleaner source and can be bought into many stores or given to people in the form of help that will make their lives easier. This will ensure that they get a healthy supply of the resource resulting in less worry about unclean drinking water. We cannot survive without water so having it means we are given life. Bottled water can be very useful when natural disasters occur as many people will be left homeless in search of food, medicine, and shelter. In this case, the product can be a short-term aid to keep victims alive and give them the strength they desperately need to survive the hardship. Tap Bottled • At home, if you are committed to obtaining bottled water from stores as your maintain source of drinking water, you will spend around $5.77 a week which adds up to a little over $300 per year. This does cost more than tap water at an estimated 1,000 times however people do not drink bottled water as an alternative to tap. Their main goal is to replace sugary beverages with this product. Bottled water has a positive effect on people as it causes them to drink more water resulting in a healthier lifestyle. Tap Bottled Tap Bottled • As Canada has an abundant amount of water, the bottled water industry has a positive effect on the economy as many companies bottle our water to sell around the world. The industry has a growth rate of 7 percent each year producing 50 to 100 billion dollars annually for the entire world. In Canada, sales of this product are increasing in value by 4% every year to reach $2.2 billion as the amount of water sold in this form is growing at 2% each year to reach 2.2 billion liters.
- Sales from 2.4 billion liters are estimated to reach $2.5 billion in 2016. This is important for Canada because it means more jobs will be available as workers will be needed to fulfill all the steps that have to be completed to put bottled water on store shelves (extracting from environment, processing, bottling, transporting). Tap Bottled • Many of us are aware of the environmental concerns of bottled water since its packaging ends up polluting the earth. The 47 million gallons of oil needed to produce plastic bottles each year takes away from the fuel available for transportation. The U.S. alone accounts for 17 billion gallons of this. 40% of the plastic bottles produced for all drinks come from the bottled water industry. Even before this product reaches shelves, it hurts the environment through CO2 emissions when they are transported to various cities and towns all over the world. Greenhouse gases (toxins) also enter the environment in the facilities where the bottles are produced. • Many do not recycle because they have not established the mindset to keep the environment clean. A vast majority of us do not look for a recycling bin either out of forgetfulness or laziness. Instead, the garbage is where they end up before being sent to landfills. 80% of the plastic water bottles made are polluting our world instead of being recycled. The result of this is 1.5 billion tons of plastic waste every year. In some cases, this type of pollution can also enter lakes and rivers choking animals in their natural habitat. • When the bottles are recycled, a lot of energy is needed to complete this process as there are millions of bottles sent each year. Although, this is still a good way for maintaining the environment so not as many resources are taken to make the packaging for new bottles. The waste produced by plastic water bottles is increasing annually as bottled water continues to become more popular. However, things can be done to potentially reduce plastic waste. Since the product continues to gain interest, this in turn means the companies that bottle water are also becoming more popular. Since they have the ability to influence their millions of customers, through advertising, these brands can do a better job of encouraging sustainability by promoting recycling to reduce the ecological footprint of bottled water. • Per gallon, the product is several times the cost of gasoline. Its popularity has increased so much that the world consumes about 41 gallons of bottled water each year. This is due to the idea created by the industry that bottled water is cleaner than tap. This believe has brought up profit for these companies drastically in the past decade. To raise sales, companies like Aquafina and Dasani claim their water is all-natural and the images used on their bottles suggests the water was taken from springs. This is true in many cases however it is difficult for the consumer to know where exactly their bottled water can from. •Once the water has been gathered it needs to be treated to remove the organic compounds that give the liquid an unusual look and smell. Through a process called Coagulation, or Chemical Oxidization, they can be extracted out with the use of equipment. To do this, primary congulates like aluminum sulfide, ferrous sulfate, ferric sulfide, and ferric chloride are used. Congulate aids lower the sludge produced as the treatment takes place and also reduces the volume of primary congulants needed to complete the process. •Ozone is used at this point to remove the odor and clean the water by getting rid of bacteria and viruses. Manganese and hydrogen sulfide contained in the water are made into insoluble metal oxides and elemental sulfur by adding ozone. At this point, the water undergoes a second filtration until it is deemed drinkable. •Glacier: The melting of glaciers around 20,000 years ago is the source for glacier water where it was once one third of the earth’s surface. This “old water” is taken from the environment before it reaches oceans. It contains a low amount of minerals. •Mineral: Springs also contain mineral water which is found to have calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, silica, and bicarbonates. Bottled water companies can also place minerals in the water to produce this form. Most are carbonated however this type does not have be for it to have the name Mineral water. The source is one that contains a high amount of minerals vital for a healthy lifestyle. It is defined as water containing 250 parts per million total dissolved solids. •Purified Drinking: Chlorine and many dissolved solids are taken out of water during processing to produce purified drinking water. This form is made through processes including distillation, deionization, and reverse osmosis, or slow change in concentration.

• Overall tap water is much more affordable than bottled water.
• Tap water is fairly cheap to process, and essentially free to distribute and consume.
• On average tap water is 500 – 10,000 times cheaper and more affordable than bottled water.
• If we compare tap and bottled water in terms of costs, our results are surprising. For example, if a bottle of water costs $1.00, a glass of water costs a mere $0.00013, which is essentially free!
• In Canada we pay approximately $1.26 for 1000 liters of tap water, but for bottled water it costs over $1500.00 for 1000 liters of water. This is equivalent to over 1000 times as much!
• In terms of production, bottled water is processed and additional costs are included due to production of containers as well as transporting and distribution, whereas tap water only needs to be processed. • In the eye of our pubic, tap water may be preferred for many different reasons.

• Tap water may be preferred due to its affordability and minimal costs. Tap water is fairly cheap and affordable to produce, but essentially free to distribute and consume. In comparison to bottled water, tap water is roughly 500 – 10,000 times cheaper! For example, it costs a mere $1.26 for 1000 liters of tap water, but it costs over $1500.00 for 1000 liters of bottled water. This is equivalent to over 1000 times cheaper!

•Tap water may also be preferred because of its availability and convenience. Tap water is extremely available, convenient, and accessible. It can be found at nearly every faucet in all houses, buildings, public places, and so forth. It is also rather portable, and can be collected in containers. • Tap water produces minimal or essentially zero wastes as it has roughly 1/100th of an impact on our environment compared to bottled water.


• Tap water produces wastes and has a significant impact on our environment during processing and sanitizing our water. However it produces minimal or almost zero waste with only a slight impact on our environment during distribution and consumption. While bottled water produces significant quantity of waste and poses a harmful impact on our environment throughout production, distribution, and consumption. Tap • Tap water impacts our economy as it generates revenue and profit for municipalities; since it costs houses, buildings, public places, and so forth to access water, our government and economy will eventually benefit. It also provides jobs and incomes to many individuals during production and purification of our tap water. This will also benefit and strengthen our economy.

• Tap water is necessary for municipalities to function properly, and for individuals to maintain their everyday life. Without tap water our economy would become significantly weaker and halt.

• Tap water also negatively affects our economy as it costs our government lots of money to produce and manufacture water treatment facilities, as well as processing and purifying water itself is rather costly.

• In Winnipeg our water treatment facility cost over 300 million dollars to construct, as well as additional costs for repairs, maintenance, instruments, machinery, employees and so forth.
•Ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection now occurs. The water is exposed to ultraviolet light for mere seconds to penetrate any waterborne microorganisms and destroy their ability to thrive and reproduce, which prevents infections and illnesses.


•Lastly, our water passes through the final treatment before it is stored in closed tanks and reservoirs. Both tap and bottled water are processed in similar manners. However, bottled water requires the production of containers.
•Tap water is also available, convenient, accessible, and free in public places as well through drinking fountains, sinks, toilets, and etc.
•When you think about it, one of the main reasons people prefer bottled water is due to its convenience and availability. It’s portable, wastes are easy to dispose of, it can be purchased in all kinds of public places, and it is great for on the go. But tap water proves to be just as available and convenient. It can also be placed in containers, which serves a similar purpose to bottled water. This makes it easily portable, and increases its availability and convenience. It is also a great solution as it is less harmful towards our environment, and it is also cheaper.
• In tap water there are sometimes many unnoticed and harmful contaminants and substances. Some of these include fertilizers, nitrates and nitrites, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, fluoride, copper, lead, rust, slime, arsenic, bacteria, parasites, and sediments such as dust, mud, dirt, and sand.
• These contaminants and chemicals are sometimes known to find their way into our tap water and impose infections and illnesses to humans, which can potentially be very harmful. = Without a doubt, water is the most valuable renewable resource on our planet. It's all around us, specifically in two main forms, bottled and tap water. Our goal during this presentation is to discover which is the most preferred source of water by exposing all the positive and negative aspects of both water resources. Our goal for this inquiry was to discover which is the most preferred source of water, based on its sustainability and use in everyday life. Both have many pros and cons which allows the answer to this question to be debatable. Through our information, we hope you have learned important facts for both that will help you make your decision. Thank You! • Before drinking water reaches our taps, it undergoes several stages of water treatment. All across our globe water is processed in a similar manner. But in Winnipeg, it is produced in this particular fashion:


• The first step is called coagulation and flocculation. In this step, chemicals such as sulphuric acid and ferric acid are added to cause particles in our water to either dissolve or attract together as well as reduce PH levels. This water then enters large basins and mixers causing particles to collide and combine together creating clumps which are easily removed. Dissolved air flotation now takes place. The water now moves into dissolved air flotation tanks. An air saturator supersaturates water with compressed air. This causes tiny air bubbles to float clumps of wastes to the surface for removal.

•Ozonation causes water to flow from dissolved air flotation tanks to ozone chambers. In this stage liquid oxygen is pumped into generators producing ozone which is used to destroy harmful bacteria as well as improve taste and odor for our water. At the end of ozonation, sodium bisulphate is added to remove leftover ozone. •The fourth step is filtration. The water flows from ozone chambers to filtration and passes through biologically activated carbon filters. The filters remove remaining particles from our water, including parasites.


•The water now moves from filtration to chlorine chambers. Chlorine is added to meet standard regulations of water requirements and also eliminate nearly all bacteria and viruses. Chlorine disinfection is the most efficient and effective disinfectant for our water. •Tap water may be preferred because of its minimal impact towards our environment. During production, distribution, and consumption tap water produces minimal wastes and has a diminutive impact on our environment, almost 1/100th of bottled water. It only produces few greenhouse gas emissions, and is potentially associated with harmful and toxic chemicals. But overall it has only a slight impact on our environment.

•It may also be preferred for its taste! In most taste tests, individuals are unable to distinguish a significant difference between bottled and tap water. Our public’s opinion is often split or undetermined, but tap water is known to be preferred over bottled water on some occasions.

•It may be preferred for its positive and beneficial impact on our economy, as it generates revenue for municipalities, and creates jobs which provide incomes, and it is also necessary for municipalities to function as it has a huge effect on all individuals.

•Tap water may also be preferred for many other reasons. • Tap water is a very convenient and available water resource; it’s just as or even more available and convenient than bottled water.
• It is found at nearly every faucet in houses, buildings, public places, and so forth.
•There is nothing more convenient, available, and accessible than tap water. All it takes is a few steps to reach a nearby faucet in your house for a free and refreshing drink. Oppose to bottled water which is expensive and located at public places, and not in the serenity of your own home. •Also, instead of frequently purchasing bottled water to meet individual’s needs, tap water is purchased in set intervals each month or year. This is more convenient, available, and accessible than bottled water because it is provided to you constantly, and in unlimited quantities. Whereas with bottled water you are limited and purchase it randomly. • Health Canada predicts roughly 90,000 individuals experience illness from unsafe or contaminated tap water, and approximately causing 90 deaths a year.
• Substances such as fertilizers, nitrates, and nitrites are known to be very harmful, and can even decrease amounts of oxygen carried by our blood. It often finds their way into our water from run-off from farms.
• Lead is also known to be extremely dangerous in our water. It most commonly enters our water through lead pipes. Lead is very harmful in our water and can lead to lead poisoning, it also harm our kidneys, nerves, and even brain. It only takes a mere gram of lead to contaminate over 20,000 liters of water.
• Chlorine also finds its way into our tap water from processing and chlorine disinfection. It can be recognized if your water has a slight taste or odor. Chlorine is extremely harmful in our drinking water as it is very toxic. It is a carcinogen and is known to lead to bladder or colon cancer. Unfortunately it is impossible or difficult to fully clean our drinking water, but our public can reduce amounts of contaminants, be aware, and prevent illnesses. We can run our faucets, if it hasn’t been used every few hours. We can drink, cook, and clean with cold water, as hot water is likely to have higher contents of lead. We can routinely clean and replace faucet strainers which can accumulate sediments, metals, and other materials. We can also filter our water to reduce and eliminate harmful contaminants. Lastly, we can simply sniff our water, if it smells like an earthy, metallic odor or rotten eggs; it’s probably contaminated with harmful chemicals and substances.
• However, some substance found in our tap water can be beneficial. For example, fluoride is found in tooth paste and also our tap water, which is added to reduce tooth decay.

• Tap water also has impacts on our public through costs, availability and convenience, and so forth. Tap water’s affordable costs, and extreme accessibility, availability, and convenience greatly impact and benefit our public in a positive way. • During processing of tap water, our environment is harmed as wastes include various pollutants, association with harmful and toxic chemicals, greenhouse gas emissions, and excessive resource use.

• Tap water has less of an impact on our environment compared to bottled water mainly due to minimal pollution such as no plastic or paper from containers, less greenhouse gases emitted through processing containers, less pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from transportation and distribution, not as many resources used, and it can easily be disposed of with zero waste. ant fa • Since bottled water has caused people to drink more of its resource, it has improved the personal health of many. As people are switching from juices and soda to bottled water, they have benefited from the fact that they are consuming more water each day.
•Drinking a lot of water can result in a person losing weight since they are not as hungry, the water contains no calories, and it will eliminate fat breakdown by-products. Water also helps reduce headaches and back pains caused by dehydration along with improving digestion and lowering constipation. Increasing your water consumption overall makes you a happier person and a harder worker in school and employment.

•Bottled water is criticized by many people for its negative effects on humans since many of the chemicals used to produce the bottles that are not mentioned on the packaging. The bottles used contain phthalates (a chemical) which makes the bottles soft and/or flexible. As time passes, these chemicals are dangerous to humans because they can damage hormones like testosterone in our bodies when they leak out of the bottle and into our water. This occurs because the chemicals are not chemically bonded but rather mixed in. Bibliography (Fred)
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http://www.recyclereminders.com/Graphic-Recycling-Label/Plastic-Bottles/SKU-LB-0978.aspx Make sure you are watching in full screen to read all text. This is due to the high demand for water by countries that lack a clean source of it.
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