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France: Home Front WW2
Transcript of France: Home Front WW2
Laura Navarro, Daniela Ramirez, Laura Solano
The government of France that collaborated with the Axis powers during WW2
Headed by Marshal Philippe Petain
Originally intended to be temporary -> Lasted for four years
Collaborated with the German forces
Nazi Germany occupied three-fifths of France's territory and the rest in the southeast was under the control of the new Vichy government
After the fall of France 1940 under Nazi Germany, France was divided into an unoccupied (Vichy) and an occupied zone
After France was captured, over two million French soldiers were captured and sent to prisoner of war camps, they were held as hostages to ensure French cooperation
Hundreds of thousands of French were forced to work in German factories, a few even volunteered to do so
The Jewish were also persecuted by the Vichy regime during this time. They were then handed to the Germans and sent to death camps
Birth rate fell since men were not at cities, women were encouraged to have children = soldiers.
Formally known as the"French Forces of the Interior"
After France was freed by the Allies, the FFI was to go back to their normal lives or integrate with the French army
The resistance was headed by Charles DeGaulle
Once the Vichy government and Nazi's were gone, Charles DeGaulle assumed control of the national French government
The Resistance was also a term used to refer to anti-German parties in France
The French economy deteriorated under German and Vichy control
Women especially suffered from shortages because the men were at the war fronts.
Production fell due to lack of supplies available during the war
Since the Germans seized 20 % of food production, it left the French with even less
The French Resistance wasn't all that successful in France but was effective in aiding the allies to win the war
The resistance was effective in their attempts to stop the German's ability to transport equipment. They successfully destroyed around 530 railroad tracks each month which greatly affected Germany's resources
The French Resistance movement during World War Two was key in the Allies success at D-Day; they gave the Allies intelligence reports and disrupted the German communication lines
• Manual workers were given more food than the white collar workers as they worked for longer hours.
• It was possible to slow massive inflation and panic in the French society.
• Helped people feel as though they were doing their part for the war
Children under 6: 3/4 of a liter every day
Children 6-12: 1/2 a liter every day
Adults 21-70: 350 grams per day
Adults 21-70: 300 grams per week
Adults 21-70: 50 grams per week
Adults 21-70: 500 grams per week
BUTTER AND MARGARINE
Adults 21-70: 200 grams per week (of each)
Adults 21-70: 50 grams per month
• Ensured that citizens had enough food, keeping their moral and physical well being up
Disadvantages of Rationing
There was a black market in which people was able to buy groceries at lower prices -> rationing was voluntarily -> the government had to use propaganda to incite the society, using messages such as
“Hoarding food is helping the enemy”
-> Rationing was abolished in October 1945, for elections.
-> Later on, rationing was re-instituted in December to supply meet and bread.
• People were starting to develop riots as there was not enough food. Rationing cards were burned.
• People started to eat Swedish turnips vegetables and Jerusalem artichokes
• Sugar was replaced by saccharin
• Coffee was replaced by toasted barley mixed with chicory
• Bought directly from local farmers
• Bartered cigarettes
-> These practices were illegal, and if caught, would result in confiscation.
Centralized, bureaucratic control.
1 Reichsmark was worth 20 Francs.