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Research Methods 2

Knowing Data Collection
by

Daniel Hughes

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Research Methods 2

What have we covered? Actitity Research Research Methods 1 Place your own picture
behind this frame! Double click to crop it if necessary San Francisco Budapest Todays
Objectives (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr Stockholm (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr Last Week Next Week Today What have you covered so far? KNOWING type/issues
Starting Assignment 1 To know the two types of research

To understand the 4 key issues in research

To be able to complete a short assessment activity Quantitative
Objective (What does this mean?)

Numerical

Formal Qualitative Subjective (what does this mean?)

Opinions - feelings etc

Concerned with explaining why Possible drawbacks? Possible drawbacks?
Does it do what it says on the tin???

Are you measuring what you say your measuring

Examples? Issue 1: Validity Issue 2: Reliability How repeatable is it?

What do your results look like?

Any flukes? Issue 3: Accuracy How close to the absolute truth!? Issue 4: Precision Closely related to repeatability/reliability

The range of difference in the measurement - consistency Discuss the task Next Time Finishing the task

Knowing data collection To check you've remembered! Data Types Research Methods 3 Place your own picture
behind this frame! Double click to crop it if necessary San Francisco Budapest Todays
Objectives (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr (cc) photo by jimmyharris on Flickr Stockholm (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr To Know the two TYPES of data

To Understand the different classifications of data

To Be Able to:

- Collect both types of data

- Give examples of each classification Possible drawbacks? Classifications
of Data Obviously not all data is the same
Lets look at the types:

- Discrete
- Nominal
- Ordinal
- Continuous
- Interval
- Ratio Last Week Today Week after Qualitative research techniques and practical data collection Tell the person next to you what these four words mean!!! Validity Issues Reliability Accuracy Precision Primary Secondary Questionnaires Interviews Observations Research Journals Books Websites Task: In Groups of 2 or 3 I want 2 pieces of research to be carried out per group...........

One with primary data results and one with secondary data results


The subject is the phone hacking scandal- everyone know what it's all about?


We need to know whether or not the public cares?

Is it really such a big deal?


Come to a conclusion about the public's opinion from conducting the two sets of research. It must include an introduction stating your method!

Tips:
Primary - If there's participants then how many, all college students? possibly age if they're all similar

Secondary - what sources? "according to 5 tabloid newspapers...." Only seperate, isolated or opposite values can be achieved:

For example: yes/no - win/lose - male/female Where participants are put into categories and counted:

For example: grouping footballers by the team they play for Ranked data that gives no indication of the difference between levels.

Allows you to say who is best and second best

*BUT does not tell you by how much!! (simply in order) Data that can have any numerical value with any number of decimal places:

For example lap times in F1 can be classed as continuous data because of the values they are given (i.e. 1 minute, 35.37 seconds) Interval data is based on a scale that has equal intervals of measurement with equal intervals between each score:

For example in figure skating scoring scale there is the same difference between scoring 5 and 5.5 as 5.5 and 6. Unlike a Richter scale whereby 6 is twice the size of 5. Ratio data has proportional equal units of measurement. Ratio scales range from zero upwards and cannot have negative scores:

For example if a rugby team scores 40 points, it is worth twice as much as their oponents who have scored 20 points. Task 2:
Give an example of each
type of data Learning objectives met? To Know the two TYPES of data

To Understand the different classifications of data

To Be Able to:

- Collect both types of data

- Give examples of each classification Up until now Next week Today Research Methods 4 Learning Objective's Starter:
Groups of 3

Give two examples of each data classification

Use and sources you wish - do not copy from text books

Present to the class Qualitative
Collection Methods Interviews Focus Groups Observations Types of Interview:

Structured - a set guided interview that is adhered to in the sameway for every participant regardless of their responses

Unstructured - has an initial start question. The interviewer must be skilled at focusing the conversation.

Semi-structured - follows a guide but additional questions may be added if responses require further investigation. Advantages:

Participants express views in their own words
Participants provide their own perspective
Unexpected data may occur
Body language, tone of voice etc can be assessed
Researcher can delve deeper by gaining rapport with participant Disadvantages:

Require more resources
Moretime consuming than questionnaires
Tend to have small sample sizes
Sometimes difficult to control discussion
data analysis is more difficult
quality of data is subjective to quality of interviewer Task - Read the handout:

Make notes in the space above if you wish.

*Breifly describe how would you ensure your interview would satisfy the 4 key issues?

List each issue and write your answer below. Two Key types Participant observation - means the researcher is actively involved in the topic.

For eaxample: Louis Theroux, Or researcher joining a team to find out about team cohesion i.e. data that can only be obtained fromt he inside

Non-Paricipant observation - researcher on the outside.

For example: Investigating the number of fouls in football by watching and noting down the fouls. Advantages
Observations can be 'here and now' rather than dependant on recall
they can take place in their natural setting rather than lab
They allow for identification of behaviours that may not be apparent in controlled interview scenrio

Disadvantages
Potential for researcher to misunderstand the visual cue - subjective
Difficult to identify and record correct type of data
The Hawthorne effect: if the person knows they are being observed they may act differently which could render the whole project invalid! Similar to interviews

But involve more than one participant

usually between 6 and 12

researcher acts as discussion facilitator

Difficult to keep on track Did we meet our objectives? To know what constitutes qualitative data collection

To understand the need for these methods

To be able to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method To know what constitutes qualitative data collection

To understand the need for these methods

To be able to identify the advantages and disadvantages of each method Quantitiative in detail Task:

To answer the following research question:

Is secondary school physical education Valid?

Conduct two forms of qualitative research:

Interviews: Structured - what did you cover is your lesson?

Focus groups: Unstructured - Ask "what is the role/purpose of PE? Knowing data collection Next week Research Methods 2 Learning objectives: KNOW the two types of research

Understand the 4 key issues

Be able to describe, define and explain the two types of research and all 4 key issues

Be able to complete Assignment 1 Activity 1: Match the research type/issue to its definition. Quantitative Qualitative Validity Reliability Accuracy Precision How fine or small a difference a measurement can detect How close a measurement is to the true value whether you are measuring what you are supposed to be measuring subjective research that tries to explain differences, relationships or cause using non numerical data. formal, objective and systematic process in which numerical data is used Activity 2 You applying for a job as a performance analyst in a cricket club. As part of the application process the head of sport science has provided you with a data set. You have been asked to interpret and explain the data set: Questions:

What type of data does the table hold?

Name the different key issues that could have affected the quality of the data set?

Explain the data set using each of the key issues as points for comparison i.e. X data is more reliable, valid etc than Y because.

Finally which equipment provided you with the best quality data? Activity 3: Using all the notes you have made...

Start Assignment 1: Examples used so far? Targets to explain accuracy and precision Validity: Research titles + Methods that don't match Reliability, Accuracy AND Precision explained/analyzed with bowler speeds data set the repeatability of a set of results Interval and ratio examples:

Interval - Temperature, Dates (data that has has an arbitrary zero)

Ratio Data - Height, Weight, Age, Length (data that has an absolute zero)
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