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The Potato

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by

Kerridwyn Schanck

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of The Potato

Origin - Andes Due to the fact that they evolved in South America, potatoes were not cultivated in the Fertile Crescent.
Instead, they were originally grown by indigenous farmers.
Wild potatoes contain the toxins solanine and tomatine. These were bred out by early farmers. Mann, Charles C. "Smithsonian.com." Smithsonian Magazine. November 2011. Accessed January 04, 2013. http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/How-the-Potato-Changed-the-World.html.
"Potato." Wikipedia. August 01, 2013. Accessed January 08, 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potato.
Mudur, Ganapati. "Controversy Grows over India's Genetically Modified Potato." US National Library of Medicine: National Institue of Health. June 21, 2003. Accessed January 8, 2013. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1126244/.
Keneally, Thomas. Three Famines. North Sydney, N.S.W.: Random House Australia, 2010.
FAOSTAT. "Potato World." : Production and Consumption. Accessed January 08, 2013. http://www.potato2008.org/en/world/index.html.
Schlosser, Eric. "Why The Fries Tast Good." In Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2001. Accessed January 8, 2013. http://www.pbs.org/pov/foodinc/fastfoodnation_01.php#.UO0CGqV5nzI. Spread Around the World First eaten by Europeans in 1532.
Eaten by Spanish who were imitating native Americans.
Less than thirty years later, potatoes were being shipped all around the Spanish Empire.
They were a good source of food for quickly growing populations such as those in Europe. Industrial Revolution: first major potato blight By late 1700s, 40% of Irish eating nothing but potatoes.
Potatoes are planted by slicing off part of the root and re-planting that.
This means that all the potatoes in a field and possibly neighboring fields are exact clones. Pests do not have to adapt to eat different types of potatoes.
In 1845, spores of the fungus P. Infestans cross Atlantic Ocean aboard cargo ships and begin attacking potatoes in Ireland.
Potato blight ends in 1852, has killed over a million. Where do Potatoes come from? The potato was originally believed to have been domesticated independently in multiple locations.
Though later genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species proved a single origin for potatoes.
The area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia, where they were domesticated 7,000–10,000 years ago. A potato infected by P. infestans Crossing the World After the domestication of potatoes they began to spread across the world.
First moving to southwestern Europe after the 1550s and later into northwestern Europe after the 1590s.
They then moved up into Russia and northwestern Asia from Europe and into southeastern Asia.
Then after the the 1800s potatoes traveled to eastern Africa and up through Oceania towards southeastern Asia. Colorado Potato Beatles Create Pesticide Industry and begin green revolution The second major potato blight involved a beetle native to Mexico that invaded the US.
Farmers did not know how to fight it, and in desperation tried covering their plants in green paint.
This paint contained arsenic, and was the first major use of pesticide.
While farmers were happy that they could finally drive pests off, major companies constantly tried to make a stronger version of the arsenic.
The early pesticide industry grew, created more effective pesticides, and began the green revolution. Potato Production Until the early 1990s, most potatoes were grown and consumed in Europe, North America and countries of the former Soviet Union.
In Asia, Africa and Latin America, output rose from less than 30 million tonnes in the early 1960s to more than 165 million tonnes in 2007.
Now Asia and Europe are the world's major potato producing regions, accounting for more than 80 percent of world production in 2007.
While harvests in Africa and Latin America were far smaller, production was at or near record levels but North America was the clear leader in yields, at more than 40 tonnes per hectare (10,000 square meters). Potatoes: Their Role in America's Hunger/Obesity Issue
-Potato chips and french fries: some of the most common
snacks in America, as they are amazingly unhealthy in most cases, at amazingly inexpensive prices.

-Foods like these have been causing simultaneous hunger and obesity
-Potatoes can be grown extremely cheaply at a very swift rate, which means they are extremely accessible to those who might otherwise become hungry.

-Potatoes are a source of many of the high sodium, high fat foods
(french fries, potato chips) that are the only options available for low income families and individuals.

- This has caused a pandemic rise in type 2 diabetes among children, heart disease, and
obesity. However, the potato food industry is also able to cause hunger, partially because the jobs in the industry are the only ones some people can get. However: these jobs are most often minimum wage, easily terminated jobs that do not offer health care. This, in turn, leads to poverty.
Loss of Variety When they were grown in the Andes, potatoes came in many varieties, as shown in the picture earlier.
With the growing fast food industry, fewer and fewer potato varieties are are grown.
The potato used by fast food and in most home cooking is the russet burbank.
The russet burbank is good for mass consumption because of its size and large amount of starch. Potato Intake Asia consumes almost half of the world's potato supply, but its huge population means that consumption per person was a modest 24 kg in 2005.
Contrary to popular belief the heartiest potato eaters are Europeans and not North Americans.
In Africa and Latin America percapita consumption levels are the lowest, but are increasing. Image sources French Fries: http://www.ramendays.com/which-fast-food-restaurant-has-the-best-french-fries/ Potato Chips: http://gizmodo.com/potato-chips/ Machu Pichu: http://davidpratt.info/americas/andes6%20machu1.jpg
Wild Andean Potatoes: http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/images/wild_potatoes.jpg
Spanish Ship Painting: http://trotter.infopages.net/images/galleon2-l.jpg
P. Infestans: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/uploads/RTEmagicC_Aardappel_Phytophthora_Fresco.jpg.jpg
Colorado Potato Beetle: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Colorado_potato_beetle.jpg GMO Potato:
http://www.theecologist.org/News/news_analysis/340410/gmfree_europe_how_we_could_still_ban_gmos.html
-Like many mass produced foods, potatoes were a crop that became subject to genetic modification.

-In 2003, Genetic protein modification on potatoes became a contreversy when it was found that in India: saying the protein enhanced potatoes will not supplement your body the way traditional protein will, therefore causing a protein deficiency.

-Therefore, the only "extra value" your body will be taking this the harsh chemicals used to create it, and many scientists have spoken against this modification. Potato pesticides: http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2010/08/production-company-agrees-to-phase-out-harmful-pesticide/

Potato Pesticides - Out of fear of blights and potato beetles, potato farmers began using pesticides the first chance they got, beginning in the late 18th century.

-However, thanks to the Green Revolution, it has become an entire industry, born of the constant adaptability of the potato beetle.

-Chemists began creating more and more variations on the theme, and the farmers kept buying, determined to keep up a beetle-free reputation.

-Today, farmers use 12 or more toxic pesticides on their crops per year. Unfortunately, many consumers are unaware of this, and continue to put these harmful chemicals into their bodies. Russet Burbank Potatoes: http://stationerytrendsmagazine.com/images/uploads/spudman/misc/russett-burbank.jpg

Many Potatoes:
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/bradley_adam/Reproduction.htm The Potato:
The History, The Geography, The Controversy Enhancing the Potato
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