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Julie Jenkins

on 23 March 2015

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Transcript of SOAN101 GENDER W15

Cross-Cultural Perspectives

Universal way of organizing social roles
but matters in different ways and to different degrees between cultures
Why Study Gender?
Anthropology (and other disciplines) had been androcentric historically
What is the difference between sex & gender?
Sex- biological differences (X/Y chromosomes, hormones, secondary sexual characteristics)

Gender- culturally & historically constructed norms, values, & behaviors considered appropriate for each sex.
Mostly, recognize a two sex/two gender model
---idea took root during Renaissance

We talk about sex and gender as if they are the same and gender is determined by biology
Hua of Papua New Guinea
Gender classified on physical characteristics and amount of “nu”

Women in child bearing years- large amount of nu
Men- low amount of nu
Women post-menopausal- low amount of nu “like men”
Elderly men- high amount of nu “like women”
Multiple Gender Categories:
The Third Gender
Some cultures recognize/institutionalize more than two genders (third/fourth genders)
-Intersex- taking on both masculine & feminine gender identity
-Biological male- taking on a non-masculine gender identity
-Biological female- taking on a non-feminine gender identity
---spiritual power
Have marriage relationships with males/masculine person
-culturally & historically constructed-
-different ideas, beliefs, meanings, symbols and roles
-attributes that we associate with different genders
-how we ought to behave, what we ought to wear, what we should like

-contribute to how we define masculinity & femininity

-part of our cultural knowledge
What kinds of ideas, symbols, etc about masculinity & the 'appropriate behavior of men' is transmitted in this commercial?

Do biological males always correspond to these ideals?
But...is 'sex' actually as apparent as we think it is?

-- 1/100 differ from standard male/female
--2/1000 receive surgery to "normalize" genital appearance
Hegemonic idealised gender vs multiple ways of being a gendered person
Sambia of PNG
masculinity= substance Jerungdu
understood to be 'strength'
biologically male children do not have...acquire through initiations
men contribute 'semen' to reproduction/ women contribute blood: "Semen makes all the infant: bone, skin, brain. One thing only, blood, your mom gives to you"
-- but blood is understood as overwhelming
--boys physical characteristics do not produce Jerungda..only can be acquired and stored.
Through acquisition of Jerungdu-- become both physical and gendered men-- source of idealized masculinity-strength, aggression, aloofness, arrogance
How do they learn these ideals?
- Initiation
The Hijras in India

-gender role is neither masculine nor feminine
Why is the term 'gender crossing' problematic?
not necessarily biologically DETERMINED. RELATED, but NOT DETERMINED.
--“raw material” that we build different ideas, beliefs, meanings, and roles around
--Construction of Reality
How is masculinity and femininity produced, managed, and transmitted within the US context?
How does the idealized vision of femininity relate to masculinity?
--How is the tension between this and the idea that uninitiated men should stay away from women negotiated?
How is masculinity produced among the Gebusi?
Who controls the representation of femininity? How does this relate to women's own experiences?
Full transcript