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Operational Amplifier? An operational amplifier, also known as an op amp, is a linear integrated circuit device. this versatile component performs several types of circuit operations.
The way in which the external components are connected to the input and output pins and the kinds of components used determine the type of op amp circuit The rate at which the output voltage of the integrator op amp increases is determined by the values of the resistor and the capacitor, an RC network in which time constants develop. Control Systems The resistor and the capacitor are an RC network The integrator op amp is configured the same way
as an inverting op amp, the only difference is that a capacitor replaces the feedback resistor. When the voltage is first applied to an integrator op amp:
the uncharged capacitor acts as a short and has very little resistance
the resistance ratio, of the capacitor/ input resistor ,is very low
therefore the gain of the op amp is less than 1
the output voltage is 0 volts As the capacitor is charging:
The effective resistance of the capacitor is increasing
The resistance ratio of the capacitor/ resistor is increasing
The voltage at the output is increasing If a square wave voltage is applied to the input, the integrator op amp will produce a Triangular signal. this was tested on proteus and oscilloscope as shown below.. Inverting Amplifier The name of the inverter is derived from the ways in which it operates
When a voltage is applied to it negative lead, called the inverting input, a voltage of the opposite polarity develops at the output. A feedback resistor is connected between the output and the inverting input leads .
A second terminal, called the non-inverting input, is labeled with a + sign. it is connected directly to the ground. Non Inverting Amplifier When a voltage is applied to the positive lead, called the non inverting input, a voltage of the same polarity develops at the output Summing amplifier First, the current value flowing through each input resistor is calculated Second, current through the resistors are added Third, determine the output voltage by multiplying the value of the feedback resistor time the current flowing through it. The overall circuit 5 different design tasks were assigned to us. However, all design systems lead to the nearly the same circuit and all were first order systems. These were: Liquid Level System
Mechanical rotational System
Parallel RL circuit
Spring Damper System
Thermal System State Space Diagrams Full circuit Schematic If the input charge is positive, the output charge will be positive and vice versa. Schematic Diagram Non Inverting Amplifier as seen on oscilloscope Summing Amplifier as seen on oscilloscope Inverting Amplifier as seen on Oscilloscope Mechanical Rotational System
Spring Damper System
Thermal System Parallel RL Circuit
Liquid Level System Determining the Voltage produced at the Output Behaviour of full circuit as seen on oscilloscope Vin Vout