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In 2012 the Human Development Index (HDI) in Peru was 0,741
Transcript of In 2012 the Human Development Index (HDI) in Peru was 0,741
) in Peru was
points, which is an improvement over 2011, which stood at 0,738.
The rank of Peru’s HDI is
76 out of 187
The HDI takes into account three variables: long and healthy life, knowledge and decent standard of living. Therefore, influence each other that life expectancy in Peru is at
, the mortality rate at
and its per capita income can be $ 10.900.
According to World Bank definitions, Peru is considered a
, as per capita gross income is more than $ 9.5 dollars a day. This classification has resulted in many developed countries previously collaborated with the country through international cooperation resources, withdraw these funds
According to the
Commission for Truth and Reconciliation (2001-2003)
, who collected the testimony of 16 985 people and organized 21 hearings with victims of violence, which was attended by over 9500 people, there were a total of
70 000 dead and missing persons
. Many of the victims were civilians.
It was concluded that during the years of armed conflict, the governments of Fernando Belaunde, Alan Garcia and Alberto Fujimori had responsibility for the repression and human rights violations.
In the nineties, despite the failure of the rule of law, one self coup-d’état, human rights violations, arbitrary management of institutions, among other negative aspects which the country suffered, on the economic level the nineties were the time to strengthen the market economy. Peruvian economy opened to the world.
Former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori received his sentence in jail: 25 years in prison convicted for crimes against humanity during his 1990-2000 administration.
We have much more private than public media.
Just now we are facing a case of concentration of media.
Before the commercial operation, El Comercio Group dominated the 49.30% of the national market selling newspapers. Followed by 28.56% of Epensa Group and La República Group with 16.39% of the total.
Now that El Comercio group bought 54% of shares in the group Epensa, they handle almost the 80% of the editorial lines, including print, digital media, radio and television media.
Eight independent journalists filed an amparo action for the judiciary to decide whether action is lawful or annul it. Because it undermines the plurality of information and freedom of expression, which are required formalities and refers to the threat of a constitutional right.
The information can no longer be regarded as a commodity but as a public service and as a good whose access should be guaranteed for the entire population and can not be subject of a particular political trend and economic interests. The Judiciary Power has not yet determined if the transaction will rolled back.
The three main problems in the capital and the big cities are:
insecurity, environmental pollution and public transport
The survey Americas Barometer reveals that Lima is the second most dangerous city in Latin America, after Mexico City DF.
The government has failed to address the issues of crime and narco-terrorism.
Peruvian economy is sustained by mining, gold is the main export of the country. The mining sector is vital to the economy of Peru-the second largest producer of copper and silver and gold-sixth, as it represents 60% of export earnings.
Gas and petroleum
: cotton, coffee, cacao, asparagus, avocados, paprika, grapes…
: anchovy, mollusks, fish flour and fish oil (overexploitation. Temporary restrictions, bans, and spatial, fishing zoning) second largest fishery in the world, after China.
: medicinal plants, alpaca and vicuna fiber, pisco and crafts.
: largest producer of coca leaf, so Peru is the country exporting more cocaine in the world.
In addition to raw materials, finished products export.
Despite the fears raised by the FTAs with the United States, European Union, China, among others, we are on the way
to stop being a banana republic!
“The remembrance is subjective, personal, instead is collective memory. So memory is always dependent on the definition of power, each regime has its vision. In Peru you have testimonies from both sides about the time of violence and we must use them. In Germany we have the problem that witnesses died. We got to the point where the memory is changed by the collective memory, and this is a very delicate situation because you can manipulate what is written in the history books.”
, German conceptual artist, specialist on memory locations.
Photographic and audiovisual exposition
Yuyanapaq, to remember
was conducted. Based on the report of the Commission for Truth and Reconciliation, the newspaper archives of the time and interviews with relatives of victims and witnesses.
The previous government rejected a donation from Germany for two million dollars to build a Museum of Memory on terrorist and paramilitary crimes in eighties and nineties. Basically because the president Alan García (2006-2011) was the same president ruled between 1985 and 1990.
The debate on the relevance of the museum opened.
Four years after the construction of the "Place of Remembrance, Tolerance and Social Inclusion" had begun, many questions have arisen about this work so far is inconclusive. This museum aims to recognize victims of terrorism.
Debate of the Museum of Memory
The eighties decade was of economical and social crisis, with an hiperinflation of 2775% in 1989, and the battle between terrorists and counterinsurgency violence of the Armed Forces.
In the mid-1990s, during the government of Alberto Fujimori, the terrorist threat was contained, but at a high price.
The Inca Empire of Tahuantinsuyo
: it was the largest and most ancient empire on the American continent. Its imperial seat was the city of Cusco. The word Tahuantinsuyo is derived from two quechua words: Tawa, meaning four, and suyo meaning states.
The Incas conquered and subjected other organized cultures.
From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, including, besides Peru, large parts of modern Ecuador, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and central Chile, and a small part of southern Colombia.
The Inca civilization arose from the highlands of Peru in the early 13th century, and the last Inca stronghold was conquered by the Spanish in 1572.
Measures 1,285,216.63 km2, is the third largest country in South America.
The length of the coastline is approximately 3,080 km.
Peru is divided in three regions: the coast, the highlands and the jungle.
This traditional division corresponds to the climate and biodiversity. The coastal region has a correspondence with the coastal desert of Peru, and subtropical desert climate which in turn is part of the desert of South Pacific, the Sierra is the central part the Andes and has mountain climate and high mountain, and the forest with its lush vegetation is part of the Amazon rain forest with warm and tropical climate.
Natural disasters: earthquakes, floods, landslides and droughts.
In Peru, climate change is already a reality. The glaciers are melting, the increase in sea temperature affects fishing and heavy rains hurt the crops.
Conference of Parties in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP20)
will be held in Lima, between December 1 and 12, 2014.
Since 2008 Peru has a
Ministry of Environment
, and certainly this international event will set a basis for new environmental policies to promote adaptation to climate change.
The agreements to come at the COP20 will promote adaptation measures related to the national social inclusion strategy of the country that will provide equal opportunities to those most affected by climate change.
As the country is pluricultural, many artistic and cultural manifestations take place.
We have many regional dances and musics from our different regions.
The Festival of Lima, also known as "Latin American Meeting Film Lima" is a film festival held annually in Lima.
LIFWEEK, The Fashion Week Lima takes place twice a year. Intended as a platform to meet local designers Peruvian market and the world, thus contributing to the development of the fashion industry in the country.
Mistura International Gastronomic Fair took place every year in Lima since 2008. Year which the Peruvian cultural party of food hosted 30 000 visitors and which in 2013 reached half a million.
Arts and culture
The education and health sectors: while at the infrastructure level is fine, there is a deficit in terms of the quality of teaching and the quality of care in state hospitals.
There are many public and private universities at national level 129 universities in the country (50 public, 78 private and one municipal). Education is seen by Peruvians as the possibility of economic and social advancement. But the difference of the quality depends on the money.
Peruvian society is sexist. The lower-class women do not have the same opportunities as men.
More than 100 cases of femicide in 2013. Femicide Law for more severe punishment was modified. The law only criminalized femicide killing of a woman by her husband, partner or ex-partner.
Peru has been one of the Latin American countries that has grown the most in the last decade. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita grew at an average rate of 3.8%, second only to Panama which reported an increase of 4%.
But, according to the WB, despite progress, Peru is still behind other countries in the region in terms of the levels of poverty and inequality.
GDP: US$ 203.8 billion dollars.
The Peruvian minimum wage is equivalent to U.S. $ 267.66, is one of the lowest in Latin America.
In 1820, the Liberating Expedition coming from Chile landed in Peru under the command of General José de San Martín. He proclaimed the independence of Peru in Lima on July 28, 1821.
Under his Protectorate the country's first Constituent Congress was formed. When San Martín left the country, the new State held a war against the royalists.
This was until 1824, when the campaigns of Junín and Ayacucho took place under the leadership of Simon Bolivar. The victory of Ayacucho ended with the capitulation of the Royalist army and ended the Viceroyalty of Peru.
Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military struggles, 168 Spanish soldiers under Francisco Pizarro and their native allies captured the Inca Atahualpa in the 1532.
It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region as the Viceroyalty of Peru, under the power of The Catholic Monarchs of Spain.
The independence movement of the 18th century was due to abuse, repression and the indigenous discontent. In addition, to the influence of the French Revolution of 1789. A first information media was the press, which arises in Peru in the early 1790s. This served as an instrument of political propaganda of the elite of that time, which condemned the revolution.
Indigenous protests emerged regarding the treatment of the colonial authorities, some of which were authentic rebellions.
Official language: Spanish. But the Ministry of Education is implementing policies for Intercultural Bilingual and Rural Education on national schools. Like in Quechua, Aymara and other native languages.
Currency: Soles (the suns)
Exchange rate: 1 dollar = 2.8 soles
Current President: Ollanta Humala
Religion: 81.3% of the population over 12 years is considered Catholic, Evangelical 12.5%, 3.3% belong to other religions and 2.9% did not specify any religious affiliation.
Voting is compulsory
Voluntary Military Service
No death penalty. The maximum sentence is life imprisonment.
Country presentation of Peru
In 2013, Peru received
3’163.639 million international tourists
. (India received 6.7 million in 2012.)
Machu Picchu: 804.348 foreign visitors and 372.960 Peruvians year.
The Inca citadel Machu Picchu, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World, was chosen as the preferred by tourists worldwide appeal for 2013, according to TripAdvisor, the most influential website among international travelers.
As part of the commemoration of the 50th Anniversary of the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the two nations, the Vice President of India, Mohammad Hamid Ansari, in 2013 made an official visit to Peru.
Peru and India decided to start negotiations for a bilateral FTA.
They discussed promotion of bilateral cooperation in the areas of science and technology, education, defense and culture.
They signed a defense cooperation agreement for the exchange of knowledge, prevention of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and technology development.
India - Peru relations
After a dictatorship, in 1980 Peru began democratic again. But at the same time the terrorist group called Shining Path, a Maoist guerrilla insurgent organization (Sendero Luminoso) declared war to the Peruvian State.
Another terrorist group called the Túpac Amaru Revolutionay Movement (MRTA) did the same.
The fear was first in the rural and distantly areas, where the State had no presence. Then the terrorists reached Lima and kidnappings, quotas to businessmen, car bombs and blow up high tension towers were everyday thing.
Politics and context
The National Institute of Development of Andean, Amazonian and Afro-Peruvian People of Peru (INDEPA) recognizes the existence of
77 ethnic groups
in Peru, of which at least 7 are living in isolation. Just as the existence of
from 16 ethno-linguistic families.
In 2013 we were
475 thousand inhabitants and every year our population increases by 339,000 people.
: 27.6% (male 4,197,698/female 4,053,852)
: 19.4% (male 2,894,420/female 2,891,714)
: 39.2% (male 5,633,249/female 6,056,017)
: 7.1% (male 1,039,975/female 1,086,428)
65 years and over
: 6.7% (male 947,349/female 1,048,601)
The vicuña represents the riches of the animal kingdom;
The quina tree, the riches of the vegetable kingdom, and
The cornucopia, the riches of the mineral kingdom.
Presidential system of government.
The Executive consists of the President, who performs the functions of Head of State. He leads the government policy, backed by the political-electoral majority.
There are three independent powers: Executive, Legislative and Judiciary.
Besides the President, we have two Vice - Presidents and a Unicameral Legislature Parliament, we call Congress, with 120 members.
17 Ministries led and coordinated by the Presidency of the Council of Ministers.
18 political parties.
Presidential elections are held every five years.
Sofía Mulanovich: First Peruvian and South American woman who has earned the title of World Champion of Surfing to win the world championship of the Association of
Surfing Professionals (ASP).
Kina Malpartida: She earned the
title of the World Boxing Association
Super Featherweight in 2009 and from
there defended the world title six times.
First place in the World Youth Chess U20 in India, made
One of the most famous fashion photographers is the Peruvian
Nobel Prize in Literature 2010
was awarded to Peruvian writer
Mario Vargas Llosa
for his cartography of structures of power and his images of resistance, revolt and defeat the enemy."
, permanent secretary of the Swedish Academy.
The main source countries of tourists to Peru worldwide were Chile, USA, Ecuador and Brazil. Visitors from India grew 20% in 2012.
The domestic tourism in Peru mobilizes an average of 12 million people and generates U.S. $ 7.500 million per year.
75,000 tourists a year visit us only for the cuisine
and spend an average of U.S. $ 1.250 each. There are 220.000 restaurants in Peru and more than 300 Peruvian restaurants abroad.