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Language and Literature

Newman University, ENU511

Stephen Pihlaja

on 18 April 2016

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Transcript of Language and Literature

Language & Literature
Dr Stephen Pihlaja
How do you know this is a poem?
Who are 'they' in the first line? How do you know?
What time of day does this poem happen in?
What word(s) connect lines 3 and 4?
What word(s) connect the first and second sections of the poem?
What connections between the meanings of words and sounds can you see?
The Dead
1 The dead are always looking down on us, they say.
2 while we are putting on our shoes or making a sandwich,
3 they are looking down through the glass bottom boats of heaven
4 as they row themselves slowly through eternity.

5 They watch the tops of our heads moving below on earth,
6 and when we lie down in a field or on a couch,
7 drugged perhaps by the hum of a long afternoon,
8 they think we are looking back at them,
9 which makes them lift their oars and fall silent
10 and wait, like parents, for us to close our eyes.
Language and Literature
Going Forward
Come to class
Do your work on time
Think broadly
Pass with flying colours
Module overview
Class Schedule
What is Stylistics?
The use of linguistic tools to study literature.
Two minute task
Define 'literature'.
Theory based
Doing stylistics
involves close observation to identify patterns
What role does punctuation play in the first poem? How do you know how to read the poem and/or should the poem even be read? 
What grammatical 'errors' are in the second poem? What effect to they have on the reading of the poem? 
How do the grammatical features of the poem relate to the semantic and pragmatic meanings of words and the poem as a whole?
Activity 2
there are so many tictoc
clocks everywhere telling people
what toctic time it is for
tictic instance five toc minutes toc
past six tic
Spring is not regulated and does
not get out of order nor do
its hands a little jerking move
over numbers slowly
we do not
wind it up it has no weights
springs wheels inside of
its slender self no indeed dear
nothing of the kind.
(So,when kiss Spring comes
we'll kiss each kiss other on kiss the kiss
lips because tic clocks toc don't make
a toctic difference
to kisskiss you and to
kiss me)

by E. E. Cummings
by E. E. Cummings
a)s w(e loo)k
S a
rIvInG .gRrEaPsPhOs)
6 types of grammar
(Crystal 1987)
Activity 1
What is grammar?
 In what ways can grammar be 'good' or 'bad'?
 Do grammar 'rules' apply in literature (poetry, short stories, novels)? In what ways do they apply, and in what ways can they be exploited?
Form and Meaning
Stylistics is...
Levels of analysis....
Week 1
Describing Grammar
Key Point
Order matters.
Hills Like White Elephants
Ernest Hemingway

The man called "Listen" through the curtain. The woman came out from the bar.
"Four reales."
"We want two Anis del Toro."
"With water? "
"Do you want it with water?"
"I don't know," the girl said. "Is it good with water?"
"It's all right."
"You want them with water?" asked the woman.
"Yes, with water."
"It tastes like licorice," the girl said and put the glass down.
"That's the way with everything."
"Yes," said the girl. "Everything tastes of licorice. Especially all the things you've waited so long for, like absinthe."
"Oh, cut it out."
"You started it," the girl said. "I was being amused. I was having a fine time."
"Well, let's try and have a fine time."
"All right. I was trying. I said the mountains looked like white elephants. Wasn't that bright?"
"That was bright."
"I wanted to try this new drink. That's all we do, isn't it--look at things and try new drinks?"
"I guess so."
What are the differences between spoken and written language?
In what ways is spoken language organised differently than written?
How is spoken language portrayed in artistic works? Is it different from transcripts of spoken talk? In what ways?
Activity 1
Identify the action in each of the turns of the conversation. Does the way the conversation is organised tell you anything about who has power in the conversation?
In what ways is this similar or dissimilar to real spoken conversation?
What effect does Hemingway's ordering of the conversation have on the reader? What is the relationship with the sequence of the conversation and the 'meaning'?
Activity 2
Identifying/repairing problems
Employing gaze/movement
Key Concepts
Conversation Analysis & Dialogue
Doing Analysis
What events happen in the section of the novel?
 How is the narrator oriented towards time?
In what ways does this paragraph follow (and not follow) Labov's narrative structure?
On the Road
by Jack Keroac (First paragraph)
I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up. I had just gotten over a serious illness that I won’t bother to talk about, except that it had something to do with the miserably weary split-up and my feeling that everything was dead. With the coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life you could call my life on the road. Before that I’d often dreamed of going West to see the country, always vaguely planning and never taking off. Dean is the perfect guy for the road because he actually was born on the road, when his parents were passing through Salt Lake City in 1926, in a jalopy, on their way to Los Angeles. First reports of him came to me through Chad King, who’d shown me a few letters from him written in a New Mexico reform school. I was tremendously interested in the letters because they so naively and sweetly asked Chad to teach him all about Nietzsche and all the wonderful intellectual things that Chad knew. At one point Carlo and I talked about the letters and wondered if we would ever meet the strange Dean Moriarty. This is all far back, when Dean was not the way he is today, when he was a young jailkid shrouded in mystery. Then news came that Dean was out of reform school and was coming to New York for the first time; also there was talk that he had just married a girl called Marylou.
1. Abstract: “one or two clauses summarizing the whole story”
2. Orientation: “at the outset, it is necessary to identify in some way the time, place, persons and their activity or the situation”
3. Complicating Action: “a series of temporally ordered clauses which we may call narrative clauses”
4. Evaluation: “the means used by the narrator to indicate the point of the narrative, its raison d’être: why it was told, and what the narrator is getting at”

Types of evaluation:
External: “the narrator can stop the narrative, turn to the listener, and tell him what the point is:

Embedding: somebody says something. The narrator
quotes the sentiment as something occurring to him at the moment rather than addressing it to the listener
or quotes himself as addressing someone else
or introduces a third person who evaluates the antagonist’s actions

Evaluative action: tell what people did rather than what they said

Evaluation by suspension of the action: “the listener’s attention is suspended, and the resolution comes with much greater force”

5. Result/resolution: “the termination of the series of events in ‘complicating action’"
6.Coda: “signals that the narrative is finished... may also contain general observations or show the effects of the event on the narrator”
1: Narrative is the primary means of comprehension and expression for our experience of events changing over time.
2: Narrative time is subjective, not objective; elastic, not metronomic.
3: Event selection and event sequencing are two crucial functional elements of narrative construction, and they are reciprocally related to the subjective experience of time described in the narrative.
4: A narrative is re-presentation of reality from a particular perspective: reality reconfigured to express meaning.
5: Oral narratives always have structure. The prototypical six-part structure as described by Labov and Waletzky includes Abstract, Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution, and Coda.
6: In practice this structure is subject to reconfiguration as meaning is socially situated.
7: Narrative is implicated in the efficient organization and encoding of memory.
8: Narrative is implicated in planning and problem-solving abilities.
9: Following from the two points above, we can locate narrative at the heart of the learning process.
From Paul Hazel 'Introduction to Narrative' (pg. 8)


Think of your favourite story or novel.
Can you think of the main events that happen in the story?
Could the events be changed around? How? How would changing the sequence of events change the meaning of the story?
 What relationships do the events have to each other?
Activity 1
Narrative (a Summary)
Labov's Narrative Structure
Activity 2
Narrative Perspective
Conversation Analysis
Applying to literature
A sociolinguistic model of narrative
(And what about the street fight?) Then - ah - well, street fight, the most important, lemme see. (You know, the one that you remember the most.) Well, I had quite a lot. Well, one, I think, was with a girl [laughter]. Like, I was a kid, you know.

And she was the baddest girl - the baddest girl in the neighborhood. If you didn=t bring her candy to school, she=d punch you in the mouth. And you had to kiss her when she [>d] tell you. This girl was only about twelve years old, man, but she was a killer. She didn=t take no junk. She whupped all her brothers.

And I came to school one day, and I didn=t have no money; my ma wouldnÕt give me no money. And I played hookies one day. First time I played hookies, man, put sump=n on me, so I said, you know, I=m not gonna play hookies no more, > cause I don=t want to get a whuppin=.

So I says to myself AWell, there=s gonna be times my mother won=t give me money because a poor family, and I can=t take this all - and so, you know - every time she don=t give me any money. So I say, well, I just gotta fight the girl. She gonna hafta whup me. I hope she don=t whup me.@

And I hit the girl: powwww!!
Excerpt taken from Labov and Waletzky (2003)
Issues with a sociolinguistic perspective
Spontaneous vs planned text
Interaction and engagement
Levels of analysis
Style & point of view
Are there lyrical elements that ‘transcend’ the context in which the song was written?
What effect does the context of Ocean’s letter have the interpretation of the lyrical elements of the song?
How does our cultural context influence the possible readings we might afford the song?
Analysis & Context
Bad Religion
List any contextual factors which could contribute to how a text is produced and read. Think about political contexts, social contexts, environmental contexts, etc.
How are the features of context seen in the writing of the text? In the interpretation of the text?
What tools does literary linguistics offer us for understanding how readers understand their own context through the text as well as the context the text creates?
Review of ‘Bad Religion’ in Pitchfork
Don't call it a coming out. Because the tone of the text-edit document read 'round the world last week felt so different from what we're used to when public figures decide to tell the world that they love people of the same gender: no trumpets, no confetti, no glossy magazine-cover smiles. No, the striking thing about Frank Ocean's poetic testimony about loving and losing a man was that it was a story without a happy ending, written by someone who didn't profess to have it all figured out but who was still searching, still hoping, still fumbling. Ocean's voice felt lonely, singular, and yet universally relatable.
The first few seconds of "Bad Religion" capture the chord that letter struck in your head when you first read it: a moaning organ echoing through an empty church, the kind of place you'd drag yourself to in the dead of a rock-bottom night to light a candle for someone you're not even sure is listening. "Taxi driver, be my shrink for an hour/ Leave the meter running…just outrun the demons, could you?" The driver replies with an "Allah Hu Akbar" that Ocean first takes as a curse, but then he realizes it's a blessing; his listener's empathy comes as a surprise. The most memorable line of that note was the first one, "Whoever you are, wherever you are…I'm starting to think we're a lot alike," and this song turns those words into feeling. "Bad Religion" is empathy made flesh: it's the most arresting song he's ever sung because everybody-- gay, straight or none of the above-- has had a night that sounds like this. If it doesn't bring you to your knees, check your pulse.
Bad Religion by Frank Ocean

Taxi driver
Be my shrink for the hour
Leave the meter running
It's rush hour
So take the streets if you wanna
Just outrun the demons, could you

He said "Allahu akbar", I told him don't curse me
"Bo Bo, you need prayer" - I guess it couldn't hurt me
If it brings me to my knees
It's a bad religion
This unrequited love
To me it's nothing but a one-man cult
And cyanide in my styrofoam cup
I can never make him love me
Never make him love me

Love me, love me, love me, love me, love me, love me, love me love

[Verse 2]
Taxi driver
I swear I've got three lives
Balanced on my head like steak knives
I can't tell you the truth about my disguise
I can't trust no one
It's a bad religion
To be in love with someone
Who could never love you
I know
Only bad religion
Could have me feeling the way I do
TEUN A. VAN DIJK citing Fairclough and Wodak (1997: 271-80)
Choose one semantic field and note all the words that belong in that field.
Are there any examples of anaphoric reference? What do they accomplish?
 What examples of substitution can you find?
A Hunger Artist
by Franz Kafka
So he lived for many years, with small regular intervals of recuperation, in visible glory, honored by the world, yet in spite of that, troubled in spirit, and all the more troubled because no-one would take his trouble seriously. What comfort could he possibly need? What more could he possibly wish for? And if some good-natured person, feeling sorry for him, tried to console him by pointing out that his melancholy was probably caused by fasting, it could happen, especially when he had been fasting for some time, that he reacted with an outburst of fury and to the general alarm began to shake the bars of his cage like a wild animal. Yet the impresario had a way of punishing these outbreaks which he rather enjoyed putting into operation. He would apologize publicly for the artist’s behaviour, which was only to be excused, he admitted, because of the irritability caused by fasting; a condition hardly to be understood by well-fed people; then by natural transition he went on to mention the artist’s equally incomprehensible boast that he could fast for much longer than he was doing; he praised the high ambition, the good will, the great self-denial undoubtedly implicit in such a statement; and then quite simply countered it by bringing out photographs, which were also on sale to the public, showing the artist on the fortieth day of a fast lying in bed almost dead from exhaustion. This perversion of the truth, familiar to the artist though it was, always unnerved him afresh and proved too much for him. What was a consequence of the premature ending of his fast was here presented as the cause of it! To fight against this lack of understanding, against a whole world of non-understanding, was impossible. Time and again in good faith he stood by the bars listening to the impresario, but as soon as the photographs appeared he always let go and sank with a groan back onto his straw, and the reassured public could once more come close and gaze at him.
(Some) kinds of cohesion
Activity 1
Why study literature from a linguistic perspective?  
What benefits are there from an empirical study of literature?
What potential disadvantages are there?
Lexical Cohesion
The grammatical and lexical features that help create a coherent text rather than a group of words
I rode my motorbike in the rain.
What is happening in this scene?
Without understanding the words of the director, what is the pragmatic meaning of his utterances/discourse activity?
What is wrong with the translation?
Context and physical objects
Pragmatic markers
Loss & Gain
"To tell the truth, Mr. Frog—"
"Please," Frog said, raising one finger again. "Call me 'Frog.'"
"To tell you the truth, Frog," Katagiri said…(Murakami, 2002: 93-94)
Think about a language you are familiar with other than English and make a list of similarities and differences between the two languages.

In translating works of literature from one language to another, what difficulties do you think there are?

What strategies can translators use to address these difficulties?

What does the translation of literature tell us about the text being translated, the context the text was written in, and the context of the target text?
Style in Translation
From Stylistics and Translation (pgs. 9-10, see reading)
Jean Boase-Beier
(i) Translation is communication and an act of communication goes beyond what a text actually says to involve inferences made by the reader and the details of the text that encourage and allow such inferences;

(ii) Texts have effects on their reader and it is part of the translator’s task to gauge (and recreate if appropriate) what gives rise to these effects;

(iii) Readers of the source text and the target text have different cognitive contexts and the style of both texts reflects this difference;

(iv) The difference between literary and non-literary texts, crucial for the translator, is essentially one of style: the style of a non-literary text generally contains fewer or more controlled ambiguities, gaps and possibilities for the reader’s engagement;

(v) The style of literary texts, on the other hand, encourages creative and interactive reading on the part of the translator, and this is the type of reading the translation will also aim to make possible;

(vi) Stylistics presents us with a toolkit for describing texts and their interactions, but the question of its effects on practice is not straightforward.
Relevant issues
In the middle of the night, the phone rang.
From Introduction to Narrative(pg. 8)
by Paul Hazel
1: Narrative is the primary means of comprehension and expression for our experience of events changing over time.

2: Narrative time is subjective, not objective; elastic, not metronomic.

3: Event selection and event sequencing are two crucial functional elements of narrative construction, and they are reciprocally related to the subjective experience of time described in the narrative.

4: A narrative is re-presentation of reality from a particular perspective: reality reconfigured to express meaning.

5: Oral narratives always have structure. The prototypical six-part structure as described by Labov and Waletzky includes Abstract, Orientation, Complication, Evaluation, Resolution, and Coda.

6: In practice this structure is subject to reconfiguration as meaning is socially situated.

7: Narrative is implicated in the efficient organization and encoding of memory.

8: Narrative is implicated in planning and problem-solving abilities.

9: Following from the two points above, we can locate narrative at the heart of the learning process.
Key concepts
The empirical study of interaction (verbal and non-verbal) in everyday interaction.
Not everyday conversation
Interaction is not mutually constructed
Conversation is one person's conjecture
Her characters aren't believable.
Case in point
Looking for patterns and themes in a text based on theory
Theories guide analysis by providing epistemological and heuristic roadmaps for analysis.
Analysis in 3 steps
Each main finding:
How they answer the Research Question?
How they relate to expectations, results of previous studies, theoretical thinking in Literature Review?
What are plausible explanations?
What do I want to know?
What's the question?
What theory will guide me?
What data am I going to analyse?
Key Concept
Texts travel across time and contexts and are constantly interpreted and re-interpreted
Vladimir Propp
"I agree that a film should have a beginning, a middle and an end but not necessarily in that order". -Jean-Luc Godard
Morphology of the Folktale (1928)
150 Russian Fairytales
31 Narrative Functions
7 Characters
Little Red Riding Hood
One of the members of a family absents himself/herself from home.
An interdiction [prohibition] is addressed to the hero.
The interdiction is violated.
The villain makes an attempt at reconnaissance.
The villain receives information about the victim.
The villain attempts to deceive the victim in order to take possession of the victim or their belongings.
The victim submits to deception and thereby unwittingly helps the villain.
The villain causes harm or injury to a member of the family.
Think of two famous fairytales.
How are the characters/storylines similar or dissimilar?
Do you agree with Propp's claim about narrative structures? Why or why not?
There is an over-arching system of language that all human draw on when employing it.
Systems are not limited to language, but can apply other things like narrative.
Structuralists are interested in underlying patterns to illustrate systematic ways of thinking and speaking
Meaning and the social world
For Seminar
Find a poem and identify one or two lexical fields from the poem. What insight does the identification of the fields give to understanding the poem's effect on readers?
For Next Week
Find a dialogue from a play or a story. Think about what information is being conveyed to the reader through the conversation. What is being highlighted? How does it help the narrative of the story move forward?
Physical Context
Personal Context
Cognitive Context
Read the extract of 'The Sisters"
What role does the narrative description of the conversation and participants add to the dialogue?
What does it show about the contexts (physical, personal, cognitive)?
How does it direct the 'gaze of the reader?
What are different 'levels' at which you can do analysis in language?
How does the scope of research change depending on the level of analysis?
Things we can analyse
Choose a text and think of three things you might be able to analyse in the text
Rewrite the first section of 'On the Road' in the third person. How does the narrative change when you change the point of view?
What are different points of view that a writer can take in a text? What do the different points of view add or take away from a given narrative?
What locative expressions are present in this extract?
How do they affect the 'view' of the audience?
Change some of the expressions and see how it affects the point of view of the author?
What perspectives are taken in each scene? How is internal thought portrayed?
How do you know?
How does the point of view change in the film?
How might this be represented in words?
Task for next week
Translate a poem from English into English. You must rewrite any poem with the same meaning, but with different words.
Vladimir Propp's 31 Functions

I. Member of family absents self from home:
II. Interdiction announced:
III. Interdiction violated:
IV. Villain tries to meet:
V. Villain receives information:
VI. Villain attempts trickery:
VII. Victim deceived:
VIII. Villain harms family: A
VIIIa. Member of family lacks or desires: a
IX. Hero approached about lack: B
X. Seeker decides on counteraction: C
XI. Hero leaves home:
XII. Hero tested: prepares for magical agent: D
XIII. Hero responds to test of donor: E
XIV. Hero gets magical agent: F
XV. Hero transferred to object of search: G
XVI. Hero and villain in direct combat: H
XVII. Hero branded: J
XVIII. Villain defeated: I
XIX. Initial lack liquidated: K
XX. Hero returns:
XXI. Hero pursued: Pr
XXII. Rescue of hero from pursuit: Rs
XXIII. Unrecognized, hero arrives home or other country
XXIV. False hero: L
XXV. Difficult task: M
XXVI. Task resolved: N
XXVII. Hero recognized: Q
XXVIII. False hero exposed: Ex
XXIX. Hero given new appearance: T
XXX. villain punished: U
XXXI. Hero marries and ascends throne: W

The Seven Character Types of Vladimir Propp

The villain—struggles against the hero
The donor—prepares the hero or gives the hero some magical object
The (magical) helper—helps the hero in the quest
The princess and her father—gives the task to the hero, identifies the false hero, marries the hero, often sought for during the narrative. Propp noted that functionally, the princess and the father can not be clearly distinguished
The dispatcher—character who makes the lack known and sends the hero off.
The hero or victim/seeker hero—reacts to the donor, weds the princess
False hero—takes credit for the hero’s actions or tries to marry the princess.

Adapted from http://www.selectedworks.co.uk/structuralism.html
Watch the first 4 scenes here
Annie Hall
Discourse constitutes society and culture
Discourse does ideological work
Discourse is historical
Discourse is a form of social action.
What is Stylistics?
What kinds of analysis can we do with stylistic tools?
Complete all readings on Moodle prior to seminar
1 I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman.
2 Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.
3 Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you.
4 Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me.
5 I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing.
6 If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.
7 If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you.
John 15
What is a metaphor?
What does metaphor ‘do’ in language?
In what ways and to what affect can metaphor be used in literature?
How does the YouTuber develop the metaphor (topic and vehicle)?
How does the development of the metaphor affect the meaning? 
What is the action of the metaphor in the development and how does it differ from the parable?
Vehicle Development
The Pragglejaz MIP follows:
1. The researcher familiarises her/himself with the discourse data.
2. The researcher works through the data looking for possible metaphors.
3. Each possible metaphor is checked for:
a. its meaning in the discourse context
b. the existence of another, more basic meaning
c. an incongruity or contrast between these meanings, and a transfer from the basic to the contextual meaning.
4. If the possible metaphor satisfies each of the above, it is coded as metaphor, usually by underlining or listing. (Pragglejaz group, 2007, p. 3)
Metaphor Identification
Conceptual Metaphor
Metaphor Definition
Discourse Dynamics
1. Morphology
Morphology is the study of word formation. In English, we put prefixes at the beginning of words (a rerun of The Hulk is on), suffixes at the end (uh-oh, the Hulk is chang-ing again).

2. Phonology
Think about the word telephone. The phon- part of the word phonology has to do with sounds. Phonology is the study of the sound systems of languages. In sign language, it's about hand shape, position, and movement.

3. Syntax
Syntax is the study of how we put words and phrases together. It's a fancy word for grammar.

4. Semantics
Seme- is a Greek root that means sign. Semantics is the study of how people produce meaning by using language or other signs. We do this in the social world. Even if you have a particular personal/family meaning for something, it's still part of the social world.

5. Pragmatics
Pragmatics is the study of practical, everyday language used by people in real communities of practice. It can overlap with semantics, but it's not just about how you use words in a social context. It's also about the culturally and socially appropriate ways we use language in particular settings (e.g., telling stories, giving speeches, having a conversation, etc....).

From Methods for the Ethnography of Communication: Language in Use in Schools and Communities (2015)
Judith Kaplan-Weinger and Char Ullman
London: Routledge

Lectures and Activities

Do some levels of analysis match some genres better than others?
How do you choose which level of analysis to use?
Lexical Cohesion is a sequence of related words in the text
Anaphoric reference is a word in a text refers back to other ideas in the text for its meaning
Cataphoric reference is a word in a text refers to another later in the text
Exophoric reference points to something outside the language of the text, which is understood in the context
Substitution is the substitution of one part of a sentence structure with a similar type part to create a new sentence
Key Point
Cohesion can reveal how writers create effective, engaging prose and poetry by creating an ecosystem of words that relate to one another in a systematic, structured way.
Key Point
Studying grammar in literary texts, like cohesion, helps us describe how the structure of a text is creating (or failing to create) a specific effect on the reader.
She had been reading all her life.
She read all her life.
She reads all the time.
She has been reading for her whole life.

How does the difference in each sentence change not only the meaning but the effect?
Cohesion describes...
Stylistics involves identifying....

(by Irvine Welsh, extract from Trainspotting)

Third time lucky. It wis like Sick Boy telt us: you’ve got tae know what it’s like tae try tae come off it before ye can actually dae it. You can only learn through failure, and what ye learn is the importance ay preparation. He could be right. Anywey, this time ah’ve prepared. A month’s rent in advance oan this big, bare room overlooking the Links. Too many bastards ken ma Montgomery Street address. Cash oan the nail! Partin wi that poppy wis the hardest bit. The easiest wis ma last shot, taken in ma left airm this morning. Ah needed something tae keep us gaun during this period ay intense preparation. Then ah wis off like a rocket roond the Kirkgate, whizzing through ma shopping list.

Ten tins ay Heinz tomato soup, eight tins ay mushroom soup (all to be consumed cold), one large tub ay vanilla ice–cream (which will melt and be drunk), two boatils ay Milk of Magnesia, one boatil ay paracetamol, one packet ay Rinstead mouth pastilles, one boatil ay multivits, five litres ay mineral water, twelve Lucozade isotonic drinks and some magazines: soft porn, Viz, Scottish Football Today, The Punter, etc. The most important item bus already been procured from a visit tae the parental home; ma Ma’s bottle ay valium, removed from her bathroom cabinet. Ah don’t feel bad about this. She never uses them now, and if she needs them her age and gender dictate that her radge GP will prescribe them like jelly tots. I lovingly tick off all the items oan ma list. It’s going tae be a hard week.
How does Welsh employ variations in 'standard' grammar exceptions to create a stylistic effect?
Simpson pgs. 65-68 in groups
LINDA (hearing Willy outside the bedroom, calls with some
trepidation): Willy!
WILLY:It’s all right. I came back.
LINDA: Why? What happened? (Slight pause.) Did something
happen, Willy?
WILLY: No, nothing happened.
LINDA: You didn’t smash the car, did you?
WILLY (with casual irritation): I said nothing happened. Didn’t
you hear me?
LINDA: Don’t you feel well?
WILLY: I’m tired to the death. (The flute has faded away. He sits
on the bed beside her, a little numb.) I couldn’t make it. I just
couldn’t make it, Linda.
LINDA (very carefully, delicately): Where were you all day? You
look terrible.
WILLY: I got as far as a little above Yonkers. I stopped for a cup
of coffee. Maybe it was the coffee.
LINDA: What?
WILLY (after a pause): I suddenly couldn’t drive any more. The
car kept going off onto the shoulder, y’know?
LINDA (helpfully): Oh. Maybe it was the steering again. I don’t
think Angelo knows the Studebaker.
WILLY: No, it’s me, it’s me. Suddenly I realize I’m goin’ sixty
miles an hour and I don’t remember the last five minutes. I’m
— I can’t seem to — keep my mind to it.
LINDA: Maybe it’s your glasses. You never went for your new
Death of a Salesmen
What information is passed to the reader in the dialogue?
What is the viewer/reader meant to understand about the couple/relationship in this dialogue?
Things to Consider
Physical Context
Personal Context
Cognitive Context
What information is presented in this dialogue?
What do we learn about the characters from the dialogue?
How does the dialogue set the scene of the movie?
Task 1
Bonus Activity
CA Therefore Assumes …
That there is overwhelming order in conversation
Conversation is neither random nor unstructured
However, order observable in conversation does not imply an overarching uniformity in conversational structure which is generalizable across conversations; participants themselves construct conversations in orderly ways
(Police make call)
(Receiver is lifted, and there is a one second pause)
Police: Hello.
Other: American Red Cross.
Police: Hello, this is Police Headquarters … er, Officer Stratton (etc,.).
(Schegloff, 1972 in Schiffrin 1994: 10)
Conversation Analysis
Illustrates workings of a deeper rule of sequencing in talk
A summons-answer sequence
A summons opens a conditional relevant for a second part of a sequence, an answer
A called party typically answers the telephone ring issuing the summons by saying Hello?
The Police’s “Hello” is a response to the “empty” answer slot: “Hello” redoes the summons
The example reflects the regular operation of adjacency pairs in general and summons-answer sequences in particular: the sequencing of moves provides for a co-ordinated entry into the conversation, and for an orderly exchange of turns within the conversation
Order is produced orderliness:
order does not occur of its own accord nor does it pre-exist the interaction, but is the result of the co-ordinated practices of the participants who achieve orderliness and then interact
Core Assumptions
Order is repeatable and recurrent:
patterns of orderliness found in conversation are repeated, not only in the talk of an individual speaker, but across groups of speakers. The achieved order is therefore the result of shared understanding
Order is produced, situated and occasioned:
order is produced by the participants themselves for the conversation in which it occurs - this means that in analysing conversation, orderliness being documented is not externally imposed by the analyst, but internally accomplished by the participants
Extract from Chapter 1 of Bleak House by Charles Dickens

Fog everywhere. Fog up the river, where it flows among green aits and meadows; fog down the river, where it rolls defiled among the tiers of shipping and the waterside pollutions of a great (and dirty) city. Fog on the Essex marshes, fog on the Kentish heights. Fog creeping into the cabooses of collier-brigs; fog lying out on the yards, and hovering in the rigging of great ships; fog drooping on the gunwales of barges and small boats. Fog in the eyes and throats of ancient Greenwich pensioners, wheezing by the firesides of their wards; fog in the stem and bowl of the afternoon pipe of the wrathful skipper, down in his close cabin; fog cruelly pinching the toes and fingers of his shivering little ’prentice boy on deck. Chance people on the bridges peeping over the parapets into a nether sky of fog, with fog all round them, as if they were up in a balloon, and hanging in the misty clouds.
Propp Resources
Structuralist View of Narrative
Grammar and cohesion
Consider the three contexts of one of the texts we've looked at in class so far.
How are they manifested in the writing?
How are they important to the way the text is presented?
Discourse encompasses the use of spoken, written and signed language and multimodal/multimedia forms of communication, and is not restricted to 'non-fictional' (eg. stylistics) nor verbal (eg. gesture and visual) materials. Although early linguistic approaches judged the unit of discourse to be larger than the sentence, phenomena of interest can range from silence, to a single utterance (such as "ok"), to a novel, a set of newspaper articles or a conversation.
Key Point
Analysing discourse requires taking into account all the factors that affect its production and consumption.
What does discourse do?
Without reading the review, what do you think this song about?
Locative Expressions
Heterodiegetic narratives takes a external, detached perspective outside of the text.
Homodiegetic narratives take and internal perspective on the story.
Heterodiegetic & Homodiegetic
First Person
Second Person
Third Person
Pronouns & perspective
Write the first paragraph of On the Road in third person and then second person.
What changes about the affect of the action on the reader?

Concern with the use of these expressions leads to two fundamental questions, “encoding” and “decoding.” The decoding question is: Given a locative expression used in a particular situation, can one predict what it conveys, how it will be interpreted-that is, provided it has been used appropriately?
If not, can one explain the inappropriateness? And the encoding question is: Given a situation with two spatial objects, can one predict the locative expression(s) that can be used truly and appropriately to describe their spatial relation?
Locative expressions are any spatial expression involving a preposition, its object, and whatever the prepositional phrase modifies
(noun, clause, etc.), such as:
the spider on the wall
Jenny is at the playground.
There is a green house on the left of the church.
He is washing the dishes in the sink.
From 'Semantics and pragmatics of locative expressions' http://csjarchive.cogsci.rpi.edu/1985v09/i03/p0341p0378/MAIN.PDF
from http://www.online-literature.com/james_joyce/958/

Of course, they had good reason to be fussy on such a night. And then it was long after ten o'clock and yet there was no sign of Gabriel and his wife. Besides they were dreadfully afraid that Freddy Malins might turn up screwed. They would not wish for worlds that any of Mary Jane's pupils should see him under the influence; and when he was like that it was sometimes very hard to manage him. Freddy Malins always came late, but they wondered what could be keeping Gabriel: and that was what brought them every two minutes to the banisters to ask Lily had Gabriel or Freddy come.

"O, Mr. Conroy," said Lily to Gabriel when she opened the door for him, "Miss Kate and Miss Julia thought you were never coming. Good-night, Mrs. Conroy."

"I'll engage they did," said Gabriel, "but they forget that my wife here takes three mortal hours to dress herself."

He stood on the mat, scraping the snow from his goloshes, while Lily led his wife to the foot of the stairs and called out:

"Miss Kate, here's Mrs. Conroy."

Kate and Julia came toddling down the dark stairs at once. Both of them kissed Gabriel's wife, said she must be perished alive, and asked was Gabriel with her.

"Here I am as right as the mail, Aunt Kate! Go on up. I'll follow," called out Gabriel from the dark.

He continued scraping his feet vigorously while the three women went upstairs, laughing, to the ladies' dressing-room. A light fringe of snow lay like a cape on the shoulders of his overcoat and like toecaps on the toes of his goloshes; and, as the buttons of his overcoat slipped with a squeaking noise through the snow-stiffened frieze, a cold, fragrant air from out-of-doors escaped from crevices and folds.

"Is it snowing again, Mr. Conroy?" asked Lily.

She had preceded him into the pantry to help him off with his overcoat. Gabriel smiled at the three syllables she had given his surname and glanced at her. She was a slim; growing girl, pale in complexion and with hay-coloured hair. The gas in the pantry made her look still paler. Gabriel had known her when she was a child and used to sit on the lowest step nursing a rag doll.

"Yes, Lily," he answered, "and I think we're in for a night of it."

He looked up at the pantry ceiling, which was shaking with the stamping and shuffling of feet on the floor above, listened for a moment to the piano and then glanced at the girl, who was folding his overcoat carefully at the end of a shelf.

"Tell me. Lily," he said in a friendly tone, "do you still go to school?"

"O no, sir," she answered. "I'm done schooling this year and more."

"O, then," said Gabriel gaily, "I suppose we'll be going to your wedding one of these fine days with your young man, eh? "

The girl glanced back at him over her shoulder and said with great bitterness:

"The men that is now is only all palaver and what they can get out of you."

Gabriel coloured, as if he felt he had made a mistake and, without looking at her, kicked off his goloshes and flicked actively with his muffler at his patent-leather shoes.
The Dead by James Joyce
What information is presented in this dialogue?
What do we learn about the characters from the dialogue?
How does the dialogue set the scene of the movie?
Task 1
Review Task
On the Road
by Jack Keroac (First paragraph)
I first met Dean not long after my wife and I split up. I had just gotten over a serious illness that I won’t bother to talk about, except that it had something to do with the miserably weary split-up and my feeling that everything was dead. With the coming of Dean Moriarty began the part of my life you could call my life on the road. Before that I’d often dreamed of going West to see the country, always vaguely planning and never taking off. Dean is the perfect guy for the road because he actually was born on the road, when his parents were passing through Salt Lake City in 1926, in a jalopy, on their way to Los Angeles. First reports of him came to me through Chad King, who’d shown me a few letters from him written in a New Mexico reform school. I was tremendously interested in the letters because they so naively and sweetly asked Chad to teach him all about Nietzsche and all the wonderful intellectual things that Chad knew. At one point Carlo and I talked about the letters and wondered if we would ever meet the strange Dean Moriarty. This is all far back, when Dean was not the way he is today, when he was a young jailkid shrouded in mystery. Then news came that Dean was out of reform school and was coming to New York for the first time; also there was talk that he had just married a girl called Marylou.
Assessment Component 2
For this essay, you will choose one form of analysis or topic that we have studied in class and apply it to a text of your choice. This can be a poem, short story, or part of a novel or film. The essay can answer questions similar to those that we have investigated in your seminar tasks and I am happy for you to expand any of the tasks to a full essay.

Some of the topics that we have investigated included:
Narrative structure
Grammar and syntax

by 12 noon on 9 January 2015
Key terms
Apply theories to do systematic, empirically verifiable analysis of texts and contexts.
Choose one of the research pieces from Simpson and consider:
What is the goal or focus of the analysis?
What is the theory underpinning the analysis?
What are the methods of the analysis?
What level of analysis is being done?
Focus, Aim, Question
The focus of the research sets the boundaries of the analysis.
The aim of the research explains what the intended outcomes are.
The question gives a clear, tangible task for the analysis
Identify the focus, aim, and question/hypothesis in these three abstracts. What data is used in the analysis?
Looking again at the abstracts, what are the levels of analysis?
Why do you think the authors chose the level of analysis they did?
John 1 Hawai‘i Pidgin (HWP)

Wat God Say Make Us Come Alive Inside
1 Da time everyting had start, had one Guy. “Godʼs Talk,” dass who him. Dat Guy an God, dey stay togedda, an da Guy stay God fo real kine. 2 Dass da Guy, da time everyting had start, him an God stay togedda. 3 God wen make everyting, but da way he do um, he tell dis Guy fo do um. No mo notting dis Guy neva make. 4 He da Guy, if you like come alive fo real kine, you come by him, cuz dat kine life come from him. Wen peopo come alive lidat, jalike dey stay inside one place dat get plenny light. Den dey can see an undastan. 5 No matta stay dark, da dark no can pio da light. Everytime get light.
John 1 King James Version (KJV)

1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
2 The same was in the beginning with God.
3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
4 In him was life; and the life was the light of men.
5 And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.
John 1 Living Bible (TLB)

1 1-2 Before anything else existed, there was Christ, with God. He has always been alive and is himself God. 3 He created everything there is—nothing exists that he didn’t make. 4 Eternal life is in him, and this life gives light to all mankind. 5 His life is the light that shines through the darkness—and the darkness can never extinguish it.
Translating the Bible
Describe the linguistic features of each of the different translations.
What elements are present in one translation but absent in others?
What elements of the translation seem to have a different nuance depending on the translation?
When translating there are always issues of loss and gain, both semantically and pragmatically, because no two languages will have exact equivalence
Key concept
Plural/singular? Polite/formal?
Familial? Erotic? Brotherly?
Croissant? Naan? Tosai?
Verb forms
Tense? Politeness?
Key Point
Translators make choices that impact how a text is read in a target language.
Key Terms
Take this poem and 'translate' it into English; that is, use different words to write the same poem in English.
What problems do you encounter in doing this?
What strategies do you use to overcome the problems?
What is the focus, aim, and question in your essay?
What data are you going to use?
What theory and method are you thinking of employing?
What findings do you expect to discover in your research?
Rethink 'Little Red Riding Hood' from the different perspectives in the story. How does the story and narrative change when there is a different point of view?
Metaphor involves two concepts or conceptual domains: the Topic (or Target), which is what is being spoken or written about, and the Vehicle (or Source), which is used metaphorically to speak or write about the Topic. The Vehicle (or Source) is distinct from the Topic and its use influences how the Topic is understood.
Juliet is the sun.
Hitler was a monster.
He's a monkey when he's excited.
Think of some examples of metaphors or metaphorical language.
What does the metaphor do or show in the examples?
/ For / years /, Sonia Gandhi / has / struggled / to / convince / Indians / that / she / is / fit/ to /wear/ the / mantle / of / the /political / dynasty / into / which / she / married /, let alone / to / become / premier /.

Can you identify the metaphors in this section of text?
The fundamental tenet of Conceptual Metaphor Theory is that metaphor operates at the level of thinking. Metaphors link two conceptual domains, the ‘source’ domain and the ‘target’ domain. The source domain consists of a set of literal entities, attributes, processes and relationships, linked semantically and apparently stored together in the mind.
Key Tenets
- Metaphors structure thinking;
- Metaphors structure knowledge;
- Metaphor is central to abstract language;
- Metaphor is grounded in physical experience;
- Metaphor is ideological."
What metaphors are present in the parable?
Are there some metaphors where the target is not clear?
A discourse dynamics approach to metaphor employs the notion of metaphor entering and remaining active in discourse activity, treating it as 'a temporary stability emerging from the activity of interconnecting systems of socially-situated language use and cognitive activity' (Cameron, Maslen, Maule, Stratton, & Stanley, 2009, p. 64) in (Pihlaja, 2014)
Vehicle term is:

• repeated
• relexicalised
• explicated
o exemplified
o elaborated
o expanded
• contrasted
Vehicle development
(from Cameron, 2008, p. 61)
Cameron, L. (2008). Metaphor shifting in the dynamics of talk. In M. S. Zanotto, L. Cameron & M. C. Cavalcanti (Eds.), Confronting metaphor in use; an applied linguistic approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Cameron, L., Maslen, R., Maule, J., Stratton, P., & Stanley, N. (2009). The discourse dynamics approach to metaphor and metaphor-led discourse analysis. Metaphor and Symbol, 24(2), 63–89.
Pihlaja, S. (2014) Antagonism on YouTube. London: Bloomsbury.
'Human garbage'
Wrong hermeneutic
Right behaviour/
Wrong behaviour
Point of View
Locative Expressions
Do not go gentle into that good night
Dylan Thomas, 1914 - 1953
Do not go gentle into that good night,
Old age should burn and rave at close of day;
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Though wise men at their end know dark is right,
Because their words had forked no lightning they
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright
Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,
And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,
Do not go gentle into that good night.

Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight
Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.

And you, my father, there on the sad height,
Curse, bless, me now with your fierce tears, I pray.
Do not go gentle into that good night.
Rage, rage against the dying of the light.
Full transcript