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Esmarie (Hester) du Plooy
Transcript of Esmarie (Hester) du Plooy
Ethical Considerations and Genetic Engineering
What is genetic technology
The alteration and examination of genes with the goal to expand our knowledge on genentic stuctures within organisms and use this knowledge alongside modern technology and engineering to change the way we approach anything affected by genetics.
The morally correct or incorrect action to take with recognition of the effects these actions will have on people involved
There are a number of ethical issues surrounding gene technology, engineering and modification that must be considered and will be outlined in this Prezi.
Examples of Gene Technology
These examples of gene technology will be explained in further detail in this prezi.
Gene Technology includes:
-Test Tube Babies
- Human Cloning
- Karyotyping in embroys
Test Tube Babies
Test Tube Baby
An egg is introduced to sperm outside of the human body through the use of genetic technology and then introduced to the womb ones ferilised.
ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES TO TEST TUBE BABIES
Help couples fertilise when:
- the woman has blocked or damaged fallopian tube
-the woman has endometriosis or ovarian disorders
-the man has abnormal semen parameters
-there is an unexplained reason for infertility
-Test tubes are frowned upon by many religious groups
-Test tube babies are seen as unnatural
- the success rate per treatment cycle is only 25%-30%
Test Tube Baby Process
Test Tube Baby: Step 1
Test Tube Baby: Step 1
The woman is given fertility drugs which causes the ovaries to develope mature follicles, some of which may contain an egg
Test Tube Baby: Step 2
Follicles are monitored through the use of blood tests and ultrasound scans, to ensure the ivarian simulation is safe
Test Tube Baby: Step 3
Test Tube Baby: Step 3
Egg Collection: once follicles are mature and contain eggs; eggs are collected using an ultrasound guided needle.
THERES A NEEDLE?!
Yes, the needle is used to collect eggs passing through the vaginal wall into the ovary
Test Tube Baby: Step 4
Eggs are placed into culture in embryology laboratory
Test Tube Baby: Step 5
Male partner produces a semen sample which is prepared in the laboratory where suffiecient harvest of normal looking and mortile sperm are collected
What the heck is mortile sperm
Sperm that is capable of motion (the little guys do have to swim/move to fertilize the egg)
Sperm meets Egg
Sperm and Egg
Eggs are checked for fertilization in the morning.
If one of the eggs are fertilized: YAY!!!!!
despite the great excitement, the next part of the process isnt all that exciting, as the eggs are cultured and remain in the laboratory for another 24-48 hours while the embryos are monitored.
The sperm and eggs are cultured overnight. (This is where the sperm is supposed to fertilise the egg)
Test Tube Baby: Step 7
Embryo Transfer Procedure:
a selected 2-3 embryos are placed into the woman's womb, where normal baby development and eventual birth would continue if the atleast one embryo do adapt and grow in the womb.
Test Tube Baby: Step 8
Cryopreserved Embryos: Suitable spare embryos are cryopreserved for the couple for future use
Ethical Views: Christians
Christians don't approve of test tube babies and believe it goes against 'natural law' to have children without sex
They also believe that is a couple is childless it is God's will
Ethical Views: Roman Catholic
The Roman Catholic Church believe that test tube babies are acceptable as long as:
-no spare embryos are to be created
-no 3rd parties can be used- as it must stay between husband and wife
- it does not replace sex within a marraige as it is God's gift to a marraige.
Ethical Views: Methodist Chruch
the Methodist Church belive test tube babies are ethical and the use of spare embryos for medical research is also acceptable but only up to the 14 days after the embryo is fertilised
Ethical Views: Church of England
Test Tube babies in all forms are ethical, including donations of eggs and sperm by third parties.
Human cloning is the form of reproduction where through the use of genetic technology, an exact duplicate of a person can be created.
Human Cloning is illegal in virtually every place on earth, and no human clone has ever been born despite the knowledge and technology to do it being presen.
Human Cloning: Advantages
-Human cloning give couples who cannot have children and same sex couples the chance to have a biological child
- Human cloning presents the chance for asexual people to have a biological child
- An opportunity to bring back the deceased and also to give children who die a chance at life again.
Ethical Problems: Clones Making Clones
When clones are given the chance to clone themselves indefinately, the original person looses control over how many clones there are thats created of him, as each clone is a new human and has the same right as the original (the right to clone-if it becomes legal). Creating an ethical problem of right to own DNA.
Ethical Problems: Illicit Cloning
The potential fot you to be cloned without giving concent is greatly compromised if cloning is made legal. This is because all thats needed from you is a cell containibg your biological material (ie hair cell, skin cell) and they are able to duplicate a person without them knowing.
Crazy stalkers do exist, even if its made illegal, black markets are always available.
Ethical Problems: Raising the Dead
Whether it is a child or a grandparent, human cloning provides the opportunity to raise the dead, but the clone most likely wount have the personality of the deceased due to change in environment and the way they grow up, they will merely be a twin. Parents cloning a dead child will be very dissapointed when the clone, is identical in looks but different in personality.
Ethical Problems: Doppel Ganger Effect
When there are enough clones from the same individual (after generations of cloning) it becomes very likely that clones will steal each other's identities and personal information (ie bbank accounts) beecause it is virtually impossible to differentuate between clones seeing that their only diffeerence will be caused by living in different environments
Ethical Problem: Biosignatures=Useless
As facial recognition and DNA testing (i.e. fingerprinting) would be identical amongst all clones, crime investigations and security systems would become bassically impossible to run, because every piece of evidence would lead back to every clone, finding the guilty clone would become virtually impossible.
Human Cloning: In Steps
1: Female donates egg
2: Egg is nucleated (nuclues is removed from egg)
3: A cell containing DNA is removed from the peron that will be cloned
A test to examine chromosomes in a sample cell, which can help identify genetic problems which can cause a disorder or disease.
- counts the number of chromosomes in cells
-look for structural abnormalities in chromosomes
Layout of a Karyotype
Karyotyping can be used in many cases, a common one is to use it on amniotic fluid to check for diseases or disorders in a fetus or embryo.
Only for Amniotic fluid?
No, karyotyping can also be tested using almost and tissue, to check for different diseases. for example, some places where chromosomes for karyotyping could be collected are: blood, bone marrow and placenta
Karyotyping in steps
Step 1: Sample cells are placed in a petri dish or test tube to grow in a laboratory
Step 2: Grown cells are taken and stained
Step 3: Using microscopes chromosomes are placed according to size, shape.
Step 4: Sample is analysed for anything irregular (i.e. number of chromosomes)
-Helps couples with a history of miscarraiges determine a cause.
- Can find a cause (and maybe a cure) for a child or baby with unusual feautures or developmental delays.
- Prepare parents who's fetus has a genetic disorder prepare before the baby arrives.
What Karyotuping can do
Karyotyping can detect chromosomal problems in a fetus or embryo like:
- Down Syndrome
- Klinefelier Syndrome
-Philiadelphia Chromosome (found in 85% of people with chronic myelogeneous lukemia)
- Turner Syndrome
Ethical Issues: Knowing the gender
Karyotyping is one of the ways in which a baby's gender can be exposed to parents, and for most parents its a joyful occasion finding out the sex of their baby, some parents would only want a certain gender. the Ethical problem is that if parents know the sex of a baby, the chance of an abortion occuring increases based on that knowledge.
Ethical Issues: Disorders and diseases.
Karyotyiping also shows an unborn child's genetic problems (mentioned before) these problems can also lead to parents deciding to abort the baby, not giving it a chance at life due to a genetic disorder.
The Society of Protection of Unborn Children
The SPUC declares "abortion of the handicapped is both a reminder od the inhumanity of abortion, attacking the most vunerable and those most in need of help, and an offence to the disabled, sending the message that they are inferior and of less value than the able bodied "
Ethical Issues: Diseases and Disorders
Some members in society support abortion of a child with a disorder to protect the parents from a straining situation both mentally and financially if they are unable to handle it. This may also protects the child from living in a situation where they dont recieve appropriate care and with low chances of adoption, the child may be harmed more by living.
Ethical Issues: Mother's Wellbeing
It is not uncommon for women to fall into depression after finding out their baby will have a genetic defect, due to a lowered expectation for their future. Some would argue having an already depressed parent and a child with a genetic defect creates an unstable and unsafe environment for both parent and child, where it might bebest not to have the child at all.
Human cloning: 1
Human cloning 2
Test Tube Baby 1
Test Tube Baby
Bibliography: Pictures and Videos