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Chicano Movement

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Jessica Chao

on 22 February 2014

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Transcript of Chicano Movement

Jessica Chao
Christina Trepczynski
Efrain Valencia
Mexican-American Immigration:
Divisible, with Justice and Liberty
for Some
Bracero Program
How long did it last?
Why was it created?
How did the workers react?
What is it?
Operation Wetback
What is Operation Wetback?
almost 4 million Mexican immigrants and deported them back to Mexico.
deportations of illegals &legals
Post-war WWII Mexican immigrants had a great impact on U.S.
number of Mexican immigrants increased due to economic hardship in Mexico.
Bracero program.
Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986,
Discrimination led to the Chicano Youth Movement
still a disparity socially, educationally, and economically
The segregation is still apparent, and based on historical evidence and the current political climate, there is no sign that chicanos (Mexican Americans) will ever gain respect as real Americans.
Why did it pass?
Anti-immigration sentiment
Need for more jobs
Opened job markets
Less immigration
... small
Immigration and Nationality Act
(Hart-Cellar Act)
Legislation that set strict quotas
on the number of immigrants allowed
to enter the United States
What is the Hart-Cellar Act?
The Chicano Movement
Program to import millions of
Mexicans into U.S
1942 -1967
fill the labor shortage caused by having to send U.S. citizens off to fight in the war
organized strikes and protests
demonstrations and rallies across the nation
helped to increase food production in the U.S. and made several farm owners and businesses rich
took over grower jobs in America
helped economy
Cesar Chavez
- key figure in helping end the bracero program
- created the United Farm Workers with Delores Huerta
- organized various strikes and protests
- urged Mexican Americans to register and vote.
Rodolfo "Corky" Gonzales
- Political activist that inspired rise of Chicano movement
Known for his poem “Yo Soy Joaquin”
Coined the term “Chicano” as a positive label
Organized the Crusade for Justice
Led the Chicano Youth Conference
Credited for being one of the leaders of the Chicano movement
Mexican American Legal Defense Fund
Played a role in Mexican civil rights movement
Helped fund for schools
Took part in fighting for Mexican American employment discrimination
Still around today.
United Mexican American Students
Protested against LA Unified School District
Organized walkouts in LA schools
Fought for equality in education among students
Movimiento Estudiantil Chicano de Aztlán (MEChA)
Fought for Chicano student’s rights
Pushed for equal educational rights by creating El Plan de Santa Barbara
Discrimination in the education system against Hispanic students
Unfair labor rights
Discriminatory legislation
Anti-immigration sentiment
Fueling Factors
More Disenfranchisement
Disenfranchisement Today
Construction of a 700-mile barrier on the U.S. Mexico border
Increased anti-immigration sentiment
Fueled by fear of terrorism
Secure Fence Act
Omaha Public School District
Three racial districts
White, Black, and Hispanic
Segregation in schools
Arizona Law
Jan Brewer, governor of Arizona
Immigrants required to carry immigration documents at all times
Police given power to detain those suspected
Recipe for racial profiling
Mexican American Immigrants
And the Economy
Took jobs that americans did not want
Used for cheap labor
Large corporations used them to gain a net profit
U.S. gained more profit
64.9% Have less than a high school degree
21.1% Have a high school degree
9.7% Some college
3.3% Bachelors
1.1% Have a Graduate/Professional degree
Large corporations Negotiate with government to allow immigrants to come to the U.S.
Ongoing supply of cheap labor
Work in undesired jobs
Did not provide health care or receive governmental aid
Job Market
Most work in unskilled labor
5.5% managerial and professional
10.2% technical Sales, administration, support
18.3% service occupations
19.4% precision production, craft, and repair
30.1% operations, fabricators, laborers
Work force
65% of all Mexican immigrants live near the poverty line
24% are in poverty
35% illegal immigrants in poverty
75% near poverty line
Children are highly likely to remain in poverty
In the U.S. for 10 years about $15,000 a year
In the U.S. from 11-20 years about $19,300 a year
In the U.S. from 21-30 years about $21,800 a year
In the U.S. for over 30 years about $26,100 a year
Average income of all immigrants is $18,942 a year
Wages of Mexican immigrants
"Illegal and legal immigrants do not pay taxes"
All mexicans are janitors or gardeners or type of source of physical labor.
A story of Discrimination:
A Personal Account
Discrimination against Mexican Immigrants still apparent
Anti-immigrant sentiment is increasing
Chicano movement improved circumstances
Chicano Youth Movement and efforts of many political activists did eradicate much of the severity of discrimination against these individuals, but there is still currently a strong anti-Mexican sentiment in the U.S.
Mexican Americans never have been, and never will be considered the true equals of other Americans.

ex) Operation Gatekeeper
How did it affect the United States?
How were they
paid poor wages
lived in unsanitary conditions
treated like animals
Full transcript